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Mr. Town— Dear Sir, 

From a pretty minute examination of your "Analysis," I feel prepared to speak 
of it in terms of very high commendation. The plan of it, I consider as pecu- 
liarly original and happy, and the execution such as to promise practically the 
most auspicious results in our schools and academies. The amount of in- 
formation it gives in the subject of prefixes and suffixes, and the mode both of 
resolving words into their original elements, and of recompounding them into the 
various derivative forms which continually occur in the language, is far greater 
than in any work of my acquaintance. It goes very far towards putting the mere 
English scholar in possession of some of the chief advantages to be derived from 
a knowledge of the Latin and Greek tongues, without subjecting him to the 
necessity of the laborious task of acquiring them. With respect to thousands of 
the youth of our country, not destined to the learned professions, this cannot but 
be regarded as supplying a very important desideratum. 

Viewed in another light, your work will be likely to be attended with equally 
happy effects. It tends to form habits of accurate analysis, and consequently of 
discriminating thought. In early life this habit cannot be exercised upon any 
tiling to more advantage, than language ; and when once formed, in regard to the 
English language, it will naturally be carried into the study of any other lan- 
guage, and finally into every department of knowledge. I cannot, therefore, but 
anticipate a most favorable reception of your little volume, wherever a sound in- 
tellectual training enters into the elementary idea of education. 

That some of the minor details of the plan may hereafter admit of improve- 
ment, is altogether probable, as the ground you occupy has been hitherto almost 
entirely untrodden; and a competent judge (N. Webster) has pronounced the 
study of etymology to be yet in its infancy. But for its avowed objects, and for 
the present wants of the age, your work, I am persuaded, will answer all the pur- 
poses of an invaluable manual. 

Professor of Hebrew and Oriental Literature, 
New York, Sept. 14, 1836. New York City University. 

In the views of my colleague, Professor Bush, I fully concur upon the ex- 
amination I have been able to give the work. 

Professor of Greek Language and Literature, 
New York, Sept. 17, 1836. New York City University. 

From Rev. N. S. S. Beman, D.D. 

I have examined somewhat minutely an " Analysis nf Derivative Words, by 
Salem Town, A.M.," and the opinion which I now give, I hop», will not be con- 
sidered by the public as a matter of mere usage or etiquette in the literary 
world. It is a work of intrinsic merit and great originality, and evinces much 
research on the part of its author. Its introduction and extensive use in our 
schools and academies would form an era in English philology. For the benefit 
of the rising generation and the honor of my country, as well as from personal 
friendship to its author, I hope the work may meet with merited success. 

I am, respectfully, <fec. 
Trot, August 23, 1836. NATHAN S. S. BEMAN. 

I fully concur in the opinion expressed by Doctor Beman. 

Pastor of Chatham Chapel Ch. 


I have examined to some extent a work, entitled " An Analysis of the De- 
rivative Words in the English Language, by Salem Town," and am free to say, 
Ihat, in my opinion, he has done more to simplify and reduce to system the 
English language than the most successful of his cotemporaries. Mr. Town has 
long been favorably known to the public as an able and successful instructor in 
classical and English literature, distinguished alike for the extent of his re- 
searches, and the accuracy of his deductions; and I am persuaded, that in the 
work now offered to the public, both the foreign and English student will find 
facilities for the acquisition of an accurate, thorough, and systematic acquaint- 
ance with language, which cannot be found in any other work of the kind. 

Philadelphia, June 21, 1836. One of the Secretaries of the A. E. S. 

To the above the following gentlemen added their entire concurrence : — 

Rev. SAML. B. WYLIE, D.D., Vice-Provost of the University of 

Rev. GEO. DUFFIELD, Philadelphia. 
Rev. SAMUEL W. CRAWFORD, Principal of the Academl. Dept. 

of the University of Pennsylvania. 
THOS. M'ADAM, Assistant. 

Rev. J. ATWATER, farmer President of Dickinson College, Pa. 
Rev. THOS. H. SKINNER, D.D., New York. 

Mr. Town— Dear Sir, 

On examination of your "Analysis," I am delighted with the philosophical 
simplicity of your plan, and impressed with the conviction of the great utility of 
the work, and deem it of peculiar excellence, as a school book, in two particu- 
lars. It provides the best apparatus extant, for early mental discipline, and for 
affording, in an interesting and intelligible manner, an early, copious, and 
practical knowledge of our language. Every philologist is struck with the num- 
ber and richness of the sources, whence our language has its existence and its 
consequent copiousness. Had you, therefore, given us only the definitive mean- 
ing of our sevpral affixes and suffixes, which are too often deemed as mere ac- 
cidental appendages, you would have deserved much of the friends of edu- 
cation. But in addition to this, you have given the student the ability to perceive 
at once the strict and literal meaning of words, and all their varied shades of 
signification. If words are the vestments of thought, you have provided the 
tyro, with a richer and more appropriate variety than can any where else be 
found. While your work is exactly adapted to our elementary and higher 
schools, you would confer immense benefit on our literature, by preparing a 
larger work, &c I shall, as soon as practicable, introduce your work into my 
school, and commend its use wherever I can. 
Very respectfullv, <&c. 

Philadelphia, June 25, 1836. Principal of Phila: H. School for Young Ladies. 

With the above sentiments, the following gentlemen have expressed their 
concurrence : — 

ABSALOM PETERS, D.D., Cor. Sec, AH., M.S., New York. 
WILLIAM BELD1N, Teacher of Pub. School, No. 2, ditto. 
ALEX. PROUDFIT, D.D., Cor. Sec, A.C.S., " ditto. 

Extract of a Letter from D. M. Reese, M.D. 
Dear Sir, 

From the brief examination of your "Analysis," I should judge it to be ad- 
mirably adapted for acquiring a knowledge of the philosophy of language ; and, 
moreover, it supplies a desideratum, the absence of which has been long felt, 
both by teachers and scholars. 

It strikes me, the principle on which your book is constructed, is precisely 
that, fur the want of which, so many dunces come forth from our schools. For 
even after children have been taught to spell and pronounce correctly, they too 
often exhibit deplorable ignorance, in relation to the meaning of words, which 
arises from no lack of industry in the teachers, but from a radical defect in the 
system, which your book is calculated to remove, and for which, I regard it 
admirably adapted. 

Yours, &c 
New York, Sept. 12, 1836. D. M. REESE. 


Extract of a letter from Seneca Wood, Esq., Aurora, to Mr. David B. Crane, 
teacher in Detroit, where, after giving his views of the work, and what he had 
himself witnessed, closes by saying : — 

I believe a child of twelve years of age may in a short period of time obtain 
a far better and more accurate knowledge of our language than is obtained by 
many of the graduates of our colleges during their course. 

Yours, &c. 
Aurora, May 3, 1836. SENECA WOOD. 

Extract of a letter from Mr. C. M. Fay, teacher of Select School, Buffalo. After 
giving his views generally, says in conclusion : — 

The principle upon which it is based, of forming words from their primitives 
by affixes and prefixes, and making out their derivations from their primitives, 
modified and changed according to the meaning of the affixes and prefixes, opens 
so easy and interesting a method of becoming acquainted with the formation and 
meaning of words, that I have no doubt it will be universally adopted as soon as 
it is understood. 

C. M. FAY, 
March 26, 1836. Teacher of Select School. 

Mr. Town— Sm, 

From a cursory view of the above-mentioned work of yours, I am decidedly 
in favor of your plan, and shall introduce the work into tny school as soon as it 
comes into market. 

Buffalo, March 26, 1836. Principal of Buffalo Academy. 

With the above, Mr. C. Fitch, Principal of the Buffalo Female Institute, Mr. 
J. Whitney, former Teacher, J. Crocker, Esq., and H. Shumway, Esq., fully 

I have examined the work, entitled an "Analysis," by Salem Town, A.M., and 
am fully satisfied it will be found of very great utility in acquiring a ready and 
correct knowledge of the English language. I shall introduce it without delay 
into the course of studies of the youth under my care. 

Philaoelp., June 24, 1836. Principal of Harmony Hall Sem. for Young Ladies. 

I have critically examined Mr. Town's "Analysis," and concur in the fore- 
going recommendations. One important advantage, however, of this excellent 
work seems to have been overlooked, and that is the great advantage to young 
ladies, in giving them many of the benefits, without the expense of time and 
labor required for a classical education. In the education of females this work 
will be regarded as above price. 

Late Pastor of 4th Free Pres. Ch., New York. 

We fully concnr in the above. N. E. JOHNSON, 

Pastor of 3d Free Pres. Ch.. New York. 
Rev. C. N. MATTOON. 

From C. C. Yates, M.D. 

1 have examined Mr. Town's "Analysis" so far as to be satisfied of its import- 
ance as a school book. The peculiar excellence of the system consists in the 
happy arrangement and combination of the elementary parts of our language, 
and a prartical application of those principles which are fundamental and com- 
mon to all other languages, in reducing the most complex derivative words to the 
entire comprehension of children. 

In my view the work presents two considerations of primary importance, the 
saving of a vast amount of time, labor, and expense, and a speedy acquisition of 
a thorough knowledge of words. 

New York, July 1, 1636. O. C. YATES. 


Having examined Mr. Town's "Analysis," I do most fully concur with Dr. 
Yates in the opinion of its merits. 

Utica, July 6, 1836. 

1 have cursorily examined Mr. Town's "Analysis," and believe it to be a work 
eminently adapted to aid the student in acquiring a thorough knowledge of the 

If the execution in detail be at all equal to the excellence of the plan, and I be- 
lieve it is so, the author is deserving the patronage and best thanks of the com- 

Principal of Acad, and High School, Philadelphia. 


From the short examination I have been able to give your "Analysis," I un- 
hesitatingly express my opinion, that the work is new, and merits the particular 
attention of every person engaged in the work of instructing the youth of our 
country. Among the most important and arduous duties, which teachers have to 
perform, is, that of successfully teaching the pupil a thorough knowledge and 
command of language ; and it is evident to all, who have had much experience in 
teaching, that before so great a desideratum can be obtained by the student, a 
very general knowledge of the true import and meaning of words must be ac- 
quired. And I take pleasure in expressing my belief, that your "Analysis" is 
admirably calculated to facilitate those who properly attend to its principles, in 
the acquisition of that very important branch of English education; and at the 
same time greatly diminishing the labor of the instructor. 

Having, therefore, received a very favorable impression of the work, from 
the examination I have given it, 1 do most cheerfully recommend it to the 
attention of teachers ; and hope you may receive the patronage of an enlightened 
public, always due to merit. Respectfully yours, 

New York, July 2, 1836. Prin. of New York Public School, No. 7. 

From the New York Evangelist. 

Something that should be in the hands of every Child that can read.- Salem 
Town's "Analysis" of the derivative words in the English language, is a book 
worthy the attention of every parent. It should be in every common school, in 
every academy, and every college in the land. It is an easy, comprehensive 
view of all the compounded words in use, in the English language. 

Albany Gazette. 

An "Analysis of the Derivative Words in the English Language," by Salem 

This is evidently the work of a deep thinker, who proposes to furnish those 
not having had a classical education with the means of acquiring a knowledge 
of derivative words and their component parts. It is a very curious book and 
one which will repay an attentive perusal. No one who has any curiosity about 
the principles of our language should be without a copy. The plan is simple, 
and the results of its adoption are highly satisfactory. 

The following literary Gentlemen have given their entire approval and com- 
mendation at length, which cannot be added : — C. Morgan. Esq., E. W. Arms, 
Esq.. J. H Paon. F.qn r J H. Clark, Esq., J. Williams, Esq., J. Morgan, and H. 








Designed to furnish an Easy and Expeditious Method of Acquiring a Knowledge of 
Derivative Words, from a Knowledge of their Component Parts. 


Eijitfr IS&tttOrt; 







Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1835, by 


in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Northern District of New York. 


No. 13 Chambers-street New-York. 


The first edition of this work, was the first effort of the 
Author, and it is believed to be the first attempt to present 
the component parts of English derivative words, in their 
distinctive character, and exhibit their combination in any 
thing like system. The practicability of the work had 
been under consideration, and the materials principally col- 
lected, many years before the plan was fully carried out. 
The first edition was at length presented, and notwithstand- 
ing its imperfections, has fairly settled the question, as to 
the importance of the plan proposed, and the course to be 
pursued in acquiring a knowledge of derivative words. 
The experiment has been made, and repeated under such 
circumstances, that the Author, from his own observation 
of facts, will now guaranty, to communicate more know- 
ledge of derivative words in the English Language, to any 
class of English Scholars over twelve years of age, in 
twelve weeks, than ever was, or ever can be communicated, 
in the ordinary way, to those of a similar age, in twelve 

The experience of thirty years, devoted exclusively to 
instruction, has presented every grade of intellect, with ev- 

ery diversity of capacity for improvement, both in classical 
and English literature ; and in no instance, so far as recol- 
lection serves, has any former course of instruction on this 
point, afforded such facilities as the one now offered, for 
acquiring a knowledge, and ready use of derivative words. 
It is a fact well known to classical scholars, that the prim- 
itive words in our language, are comparatively few, and of 
the simplest order, such as almost every child of ten years 
old knows. It is when these simple words grow up into 
their derivative, compound and complex forms, that the 
child loses sight of their import, and simply, because he is 
ignorant of their component parts. How few children could 
tell what agglutinative means ; and who of them does not 
know what is meant by glue ? The classical scholar per- 
ceives this peculiarity of construction the moment he opens 
the book, and adds, " such principles are not matters of 
opinion, they are matters of fact ;" the component parts of 
all derivative words being known how can the scholar fail 
to know a whole, just as soon as he understands all the 
component parts. 

The principles then on which this work is executed, are 
interwoven with, and fundamental to, a critical knowledge 
of every language. Hence one undivided opinion has been 
expressed by the classical scholar, that " Analysis, was 
the only method, by which it was possible to arrive at, and 
feel the full force of a compound, or derivative word." One 
grand object in the study of the classics, is to acquire an 
extensive knowledge, and command, of language. It is 
believed that the principles developed in this little book, 
are the very principles by which every scientific man is 
guided, and on which rests all his critical knowledge in 
any language. 

The embodying them is, therefore, only collecting such 
component parts of words, as have for ages governed lan- 
guage, showing how they have ever been applied, and then 

taking advantage of this knowledge to confer some of the 
important benefits, which the classical student now receives 
almost exclusively, on our common English scholars. It 
is the undivided opinion of the most competent judges, 
that an English scholar, thoroughly versed in this system, 
will, so far as language is concerned, secure to himself 
many important advantages, which the classical scholar 
alone, has heretofore enjoyed. The plan and execution of 
the work are original. It is not designed to come in 
competition with any other book now in use. It is not 
designed to supersede, nor take the place of any school- 
book whatever, but to follow any, or all such, as the case 
may be. 

The second edition has undergone a thorough revision. 
The whole plan has been much simplified, and adapted to 
the capacities of children in our common schools. Much 
has been added, and it is now submitted to an enlightened 
public, with little desire on the part of the Author, than its 
general utility to the rising generation, and in part, to re- 
lieve teachers of that thankless burden of responsibility, 
and painful anxiety in devising and trying a thousand expe- 
dients to give their pupils a respectable knowledge of 
words, and a proper command of language. None but a 
teacher can know the sleepless solicitude of that profes- 
sion. The Author has spent his life, with all his feelings 
merged in the prospects of the rising generation, and the 
diffusion of that general knowledge, which has placed 
this whole nation on so proud an eminence. Know- 
ledge and virtue are, emphatically, the stepping stone 
to individual distinction, the main pillars which must 
ever sustain our free institutions, and the broad foun- 
dation, on which the temples of our nation's glory can 
securely stand. 

It is, therefore, most ardently desired, that teachers 
especially, and all well-wishers to any improvements in 

the facilities of communicating a knowledge of the struc- 
ture of words, so as to furnish a general clue to their com- 
mon import, and thereby, at once unlock the whole amount 
of derivative words in the Language, will kindly impart 
their views, in aid of a cause, common to science, and 
common to our country. 



The simple fact, that words are the common medium 
through which all knowledge is, in some way recorded, 
transmitted, received and communicated, should induce 
every person to make vigorous efforts, fully to understand 
their import. If words are read or spoken, and the reader 
or hearer, is ignorant of their appropriate meaning, he 
might as well, not have read or heard. It has been a com- 
mon exercise in our schools, for scholars to spell, year after 
year, till the whole contents of the spelling part, were com- 
pletely memorized, and at the same time, very few of the 
words distinctly understood. Hence in reading a sentence, 
if asked the definition of the words singly, or the collective 
idea contained in the sentence, either no answer would be 
given, or one altogether confused and unintelligible. This 
shows a radical defect somewhere. Either the writer has 
failed by the improper use of words, to record an idea, or 
the reader, through his ignorance of those words, cannot 
tell what that idea is. This may be no reflection on the 
student's intellect, yet it is a most serious reflection on that 
course of instruction, which has consumed so many years, 
in little else, than repeating sounds, without any regard to 
their distinctive import. And why, it may be asked, may 
not a scholar just as soon as he can combine words in read- 
ing, with any degree of fluency, commence and continue 
learning to associate their appropriate ideas ? what use can 
these words be, till their meaning is known. And cannot 

ideas be learned with greater facility, than naked words, 
from the instinctive interest the mind feels in its perceptions 
of ideas, as well as from the powerful influence of the 
principles of association on its operations ? It is the very 
nature of mind to think, and derive pleasure from every new 
thought. This deficiency, therefore, as to the true import 
of words, according to established usage, is a radical defect 
in the education of our country. It is felt, more or less, in 
every department of society. It is complained of, even by 
the finished classical scholar, direct from the halls of our 
colleges, as a serious defect in the fundamental part of his 
English education. A defect upon which he always looks 
back, to the early period of his life, when he could run 
through all the spelling columns in his book, with as much 
facility, as a parrot can say ' Pritty Pol,' and at the same 
time, with little more knowledge of their import, or use, 
simply because he was not otherwise taught — had no exer- 
cise, which led him, directly or indirectly, to that point. 
When, therefore, he comes into public life, and must be 
responsible for the precise ideas his words convey, he is 
often compelled to make frequent appeals to his dictionary, 
in relation to some of the most common words in the lan- 
guage. Who does not know this from his own experience, 
when just stepping into public life ? There is not, most 
probably, a teacher in the higher departments of science 
in the United States, who has not witnessed this defect, 
in a greater or less degree, in the elementary English edu- 
cation of many of his pupils. A specific remedy should 
be diligently sought, and if found, speedily applied. If the 
author has not greatly misjudged, this book does present 
something like a remedy. If he has misjudged, he has 
plenty of good company. For in the course of twelve years, 
the author has been examining this very point, at intervals, 
and has passed through many of the states, seen and con- 
versed with many scientific men, and in May, 1835, at the 

General Assembly at Pittsburgh, availed himself of the opin- 
ions of many others, some of whom, at least, were men of 
undoubted qualifications. All, he believes, aside from any 
personal considerations, have agreed in the same opinion. 
Indeed it is the only opinion, which could be predicated on 
the fact, that primitive words, given with their definitions, 
shall be learned by the scholar — that after spelling and de- 
fining such primitive, then with its prefixes and suffixes, he 
shall carry it through all its derivative forms in some cases 
amounting to more than a hundred words, with their appro- 
priate meaning. The result of such a course, could not fail 
to secure its object, and lay the foundation deep and broad, 
in the analysis of words, with their true import, equal to the 
entire length and breadth of our language. 

Competent judges have entertained the opinion,* that a 
scholar may, by proper application, acquire more knowledge 
of the English language in a few months, on the principles 
of Analysis and Synthesis, laid down in this book, both in 
accuracy of spelling, structure of words, and their true im- 
port, than ever is acquired in the ordinary course of study, 
during many years. It is very obvious, say they, that 
scholars will learn to examine the structure of words, and 
trace out various formations from the same root, something 
in the manner, as the classical student is exercised in 
Greek and Latin. In this way, he readily discovers how 
the primitive word varies its signification, as it is run through 
all its derivative forms. From a knowledge of all the com- 
ponent parts, he can easily trace each shade of difference, 
from the plain, literal signification, to the most beautiful fig- 
urative applications. Hence if he has thoughts to record, 
he is qualified to choose the most appropriate words, and 
nothing, but inexcusable carelessness, can cause ambiguity 
of expression. 

* This opinion has since been demonstrated by actual experiment. 



Directions for Studying this Book, 11 

Explanation of Primitive and Derivative Words, 13 

What are neither Prefixes nor Suffixes, 13 

Origin of the Prefixes and Suffixes, 14 

Explanation of the Prefixes, 13 

Explanation of the Suffixes, 26 

Synopsis of the Prefixes, 33 

Synopsis of the Suffixes, 38 

Classification of Suffixes 41 

General Rules for forming Derivative Words, 43 

Brief Examination as to the regular formation of Derivative Words, 45 

Special Rules for understanding the arrangement and combination of Pre- 
fixes in forming Derivative Words, 48 

Manner of defining words by their Prefixes and Suffixes, 51 

An entire Example in the word Press, 52 

First Exercise for Children in Common Schools, 55 

Second Exercise, by subjoining Suffixes in Classes, 61 

Third Exercise in forming Derivative Words from their Primitives, 68 

Fourth Exercise with Prefixes and Suffixes, to be carried out and defined, ... 70 

Fifth Exercise, carried out like the fourth 83 

Sixth Exercise, carried out in the same manner, 92 

Seventh, an Exercise for the Student to form as many Derivatives as he can, 

and define them occasionally or generally 106 

Eighth, same as the Seventh, Ill 

Ninth, do 124 

Tenth, do 130 

Eleventh, do 133 

Twelfth, do 144 

Thirteenth, do 1ST 

A few Words more particularly examined, analytically and synthetically,. . . . 161 
Importance of understanding the Latin and Greek Languages, ,, 163 


1. The scholar must understand the difference between a 
primitive, and derivative word. Sec. 1. 

2. He must observe when the same combinations of let- 
ters, are neither prefixes nor suffixes. Sec. 2. 

3 The prefixes must be learned so perfectly, as to pre- 
vent the least hesitancy in defining them, either alone, or in 
connexion with such words as the teacher is pleased to 
propose. Sec. 4. 

This is a primary and fundamental requisition. 

In rendering the prefixes familiar, experience has proved 
the most successful method to be, for the teacher to name 
primitive words promiscuously, in any part of the book, tell 
their meaning, then join the prefix, and require the student 
to define the word. A few exercises in this manner will 
secure a correct and prompt answer. This exercise should 
in no case be omitted. 

4. The suffixes with their signification as appended to 
words, must be learned with the same care as the prefixes. 
Sec. 5. 

5. Let the scholars be frequently exercised in the sy- 
nopsis of prefixes, and suffixes. Sec. 6 & 7. 

6. Let the manner of defining words be well understood, 
in sec. 12, connected with the example in the word Press, 
sec. 13, the teacher pronouncing each word, and requiring 
the scholar to define it according to its formation. 

7. Examine the rules for forming derivative words, and 
the use of commas, with their examples, sec. 9, and con- 
tinue this exercise through sec. 15, of forming, and defining 
•words with their suffixes classed. This exercise must be 
continued until the mode of defining is perfectly familiar. 

8. Next, let the manner of combining the prefixes in 
sec. 11, be well understood. 



9. Examine sec. 10, and in connexion with it, form the 
derivative words by reading them in sec. 16, till that exer- 
cise becomes familiar. 

When the above is well understood, students in the high- 
er classes, may be put to the exercise of spelling primitive 
words, forming and defining their derivatives, at the discre- 
tion of the teacher. As they read also, let them analyze 
the words. 

In common schools, after committing the prefixes thor- 
oughly, the scholars may commence sec. 14, and go on, 
regularly, referring to such rules and explanations in their 
advancement, as the teacher finds needful. 

In common schools the course to be pursued is simply 
the following. Let the scholars learn the prefixes and suf- 
fixes, the manner of combining them, the import of the 
word after such combinations. Then commence sec. 14, 
and go through the book in regular spelling lessons, as in 
any spelling-book, but with this addition, that the meaning 
of each word must be learned, and given when spelled, af- 
ter which, let the scholars be required to form and define 
as many derivatives as they can. 

One winter's school of four months, will carry any indus- 
trious scholar, of 10 or 12 years old, completely through 
this book, at 20 primitive words per day. From the 1600 
words which are given, more than 30,000 derivatives are 
formed. Experiment in the opinion of competent judges, 
has satisfactorily settled one important point, that children, 
under this discipline, can actually acquire more knowledge 
of the English language in one winter's school of four 
months, than was ever acquired in the ordinary way, by 
scholars of the same age, in four times that number of 
months, if not in their whole life. Let teachers, therefore, 
make thorough work in the application of the principles of 
this book, and they will shortly see their pupils becoming 
thoroughly versed in the knowledge of language. Teach- 
ers should frequently exercise small children in the synop- 
sis of the prefixes and suffixes, together with sections 14 
and 15. 

Explanation of Primitive and Derivative Words. 

Primitive words are such as can be reduced to no few- 
er letters, than what are then expressed. Man, Fame, 
House, Sense, are Primitive words, because they can be 
reduced to no fewer letters, and convey a distinct idea of 
each thing specified. 

But Manly, Defamation, Insensibility and Houseless, are 
derivative words, because they can be stripped of all their 
letters above Man, Fame, Sense and House, and still leave 
a significant word. 

A compound word is composed of two or more distinct 
words, as Sugar-maple, Over-load, Common-place-book. 

In this work, all such words of Latin origin as Abdicate, 
Convene, Adhere, &c. so far as our language is concerned, 
will be taken as primitives. Yet the English scholar will 
perceive they are not such, in the language whence they 
are derived. Some other words also will be inserted which 
are not primitives. 

Those parts, which are added to a primitive word, we 
shall call prefixes and suffixes, and as the primitive has at 
least one appropriate meaning, all the varieties of signifi- 
cation which arise from additions in any way made to such 
primitive, must depend exclusively on those parts added. 
Hence, when all the prefixes and suffixes in the language 
are known, nothing remains, but to acquire the meaning of 
the primitives, to understand the whole language, so far as 
those component parts are concerned in modifying the im- 
port of words. 



Lv applying the following rules, in this book, it must be 
remembered, their application is confined exclusively to 
13 2 


derivative words. When any of those combinations of 
letters, called prefixes and suffixes, constitute an essential 
part of a primitive word, they are in such cases neither 
prefixes nor suffixes, and do not come under the rules of 
Analysis nor Definition. Such as ' ess,' in Bless, ' ate,' in 
Climate, ' ish,' in Lavish, ' ment,' in Torment, &c « em,' in 
Embers, ' bi,' in Bias, ' un,' in Under, together with all 
such primitive words, as contain a similar combination of 
letters, as any of the prefixes and suffixes. To such the 
rules do not apply. 

Origin of some of the Prefixes and Suffixes. 

The greater part of the prefixes in the English language, 
come to us from the Latin and Greek. In those Languages, 
they are separable, or inseparable prepositions. Very little 
difference exists in their independent signification, or con- 
junct influence, as used in our language, or in those lan- 
guages, whence they are derived. Their extent of appli- 
cation gives them a commanding influence. Hence the 
importance of a distinct understanding of all those small 
words, so extensively interwoven, in the formation of our 
derivative words. 

The suffixes are of a more doubtful origin ; yet their 
common import, as appended to words, can be obtained 
with sufficient precision, to answer the more important pur- 
poses of this work. Nor is it very material in this case, 
whether we can or cannot decide unequivocally on their 
origin, provided we can be satisfied how their application 
does change, alter or modify the import of words, according 
to established usage. Although such inquiry is not neces- 
sarily connected with this work, yet we will give some 
general view, both as to fact, and probability of their deri- 

er. When it signifies a person, as m Lover, Farmer, &c. 
is considered to be a contraction of the Saxon wcr, which 
signifies, a Man. Hence, hover implies a Man, or person 
who loves. 


OR. Is derived from the Latin Er and or, go far in dis- 
tinguishing Saxon and Latin derivations. 

ess. Is probably of Hebrew origin, yet many derivatives 
in or, from Latin, take ess, to distinguish the gender, as 
Actor, Actress, generally dropping the vowel which pre- 
cedes r. 

y. When the final letter, is thought to be the equivalent 
of the German ei, and gives at least three different senses 
to words. 

1. It expresses a condition, as Slave Slaver Slavery. 

2. A place where something is done or kept, as Factor 
Factory, Armor Armory. 

3. The possession of somet, g, as weal wealth wealthy. 
ly. Is a contraction of like, derived from the German 

• lick.' We say either dea.ih.-Uke, or death/y, God-like, or 
God/y, but always goodly, and always war-like. 

ty. Is derived from Lat. as Pietas, whence Piety, Levi- 
tas, Levity, Serenitas, Serenity, Civilitas. 

fy, fit, ficJ Have a common origin, which is the con- 
traction of Facio, or Fio, to make, or become. Fructify is 
a contraction of Fructus and Facio, to make fruitful — Deify, 
&c. Deus and Facio. 

able and ible. Home Tooke thinks are taken from the 
Gothic word ' abal? implying power, strength, or ability. 

Able and ible, are also common in Latin. 

tive. Is borrowed from the Lat. Tivus — as Nativus, Na- 
tive. Nominativus, Nominative, Genitivus. 

ic. Is a contraction, as it is thought, from the Greek ikos, 
as Kritikos, Critic. Some however are from Lat. and 

tion, sion. Are derived from Lat. and in many instances 
differ in signification very little from l ing, : as in Education, 
or Educating. When the Latin Supine, whence they are 
borrowed, ends in turn, we spell tion, but when the Supine 
is sum, we spell sion. 

Lat. Motum, Conventum, Formatum, Collectum. 

En. Motion, Convention, Formation, Collection. 

Lat. Aversum, Submersum, Incursum, Adhesum. 

En. Aversion, Submersion, Incursion, Adhesion. 

Others are formed from Lat. nouns, by the addition of n, 
to the nom. case, as Natio, Statio — Nation, Station. 


ance. "I These six terminations have evidently growfi 

ence. out of the pres. part. nom. case of Lat. verbs, 

ancy. I because the spelling of each, agrees with the 

ency. | four conjugations. The first with few excep- 

ant. tions, has ance. The second and third, ence, 

ent. J and the fourth ience. Lat. first. Conj. Affirm- 
ans, Accordant, Chcumstans. En. Affirmance, Accordance, 

Second and third conj. Tendens, Agcns, Ardent, Insolv- 
ent. En. Tendency, Agency, Ardency, Insolvency. 

Fourth conj. Audiens, Conveniens, Obediens, Experiens, 
VdXiens. En. Audience, Convenience, Obedience, Expe- 
rience, Patience. 

Lat. Dissonant, Dependent, Delinquent, Expedient. 

En. Dissonant, Dependent, Delinquent, Expedient. 

This fact, if duly regarded by the classical scholar, 
would prevent any mistakes in spelling words of this de- 

ment. ) Are admitted to be of French origin. Ment, 

age. S is extensively used. 

ate. There is a numerous class of words having this 
termination, which in form, exactly agrees with the Imp. 
mode of Lat. verbs second person, plural, and the Lat. 
perf. part, vocative case ; yet in signification, there is little, 
or no analogy. It is now an English termination, common 
to words of Lat. derivation, as Accelerate, Obliterate, De- 
liberate, Demonstrate, Accommodate, &c. 

d. In such words as Multiplicand, Dividend, Subtrahend, 
Legend, Reverend, &c. is evidently, a contraction, of the 
Lat. dus, or dum, as Legend for Legendns, &c. 

ble. This termination has come down to us through the 
medium of the Italian and French ; from the Lat. bilis, the 
French mistaking between bile, and the Italian vole, made 
it ble, and very improperly appended it to a numerous class 
of words, such as SyllaZde, Yestible, double, Treble, &c. 

en. Is derived from the Saxon an, through tbe German, 
en, and was originally equivalent to our particle to, of the 
Infinitive mode. Amongst the Saxons en, and n, were used 
in common with cd, as participial terminations, as Craven, 
Heaven, Barren, for Craved, Heaved, Barred ; both are re- 
tained by established usage. We now say given, and stern, 


instead of gived, and stemed, or we make use of either, as 
Engraven, or Engraved ; yet by far the most numerous 
class of words retained exclusively. t is often used like 
en for el as buik for builJeci. 

ric. Is derived from German, and implies possession, as 

dom. Is from the German thum, implying a collection of 

ing. Is taken from the German ung. 

ling and kin. Are also borrowed from the German, and 
are commonly used as diminutives, as Ducking-, a little 
Duck. Lamb&m, a little Lamb. Wilkin, &c. 

hood. Is also borrowed from German, as Boyhood, 
Priesthood, expressing a state or condition. 

th. Seems to be peculiar to some of the more ancient 
forms of our language, accompanied in most cases, by a 
change of vowels, as Long, Length, Strong, StrengM, Bear, 
Birth, Moon, Month, &c. 

ght. Is the equivalent for the German cht, as in sight, 

ish. Is the substitute for the German, isch. 

some. Probably may have come from the German sam 

ful. Is derived from the German voll. 

less. Is also from the German los. 

ed. While a great portion of our verbs derived from the 
Saxon, are very irregular, as drink, swim, fling, &c. those 
of Latin origin, are pretty uniformly marked by the regular 
addition of ed, to their imperfect, and participle. 

ship. Seems to be borrowed from some word, implying 
to shape, or do something, as Friendship, Fellowship, &c. 

ness. Is doubtless from the German niss. 

al. May be considered of Latin origin. 

ar, and ory. Are also derived from the Latin. 

ize, ist, ism. Are of Greek derivation. 

ure. Is from the Latin. 

ude, tude. Are also from the Latin. 

oid. Is derived from the Greek, eidos. 

ous. Is taken from the Latin. 

There can be little doubt, that most if not all the impor- 
tant terminations in our language, were once significant 
words, or a contraction of such words. Could this be pre- 



cisely ascertained, it would furnish a most perfect devel- 
opement of the true genius of our language. The result 
of such a discovery, would expose all the errors and im- 
perfections that now exist, and naturally induce subsequent 
writers to avoid them, and gradually introduce, what in 
process of time would be a pure, if not a perfect system 
of language. 


Explanation of the Prefixes. 

A Prefix is a letter, syllable or word added to the be- 
ginning of some other word to vary or modify its primitive 

Theist, implies a person who believes in the existence 
of a God. Now prefix a, and it becomes Atheist, implying 
one who does not believe in the existence of a God. 

Again, Possible, means that which can be done. Now 
prefix im, and it becomes ^possible, implying what cannot 
be done. 

Some entire words are occasionally used as prefixes. 
The following are the principal prefixes in our language, 
influencing the meaning of words. 

a, ab, abs. When these are prefixed to words, which are 
commonly of Latin origin, they usually denote, 

Separating, Taking from, 

or Departure, or Privation. 

As Ab solve, to free from. 

Ab lution, the act of washing away. 
Ab scision, the act of cutting off. 
Abs tract, to take from. 
Ab breviate, to shorten, taking apart. 
Abs ternious, refraining from. 
Ab jure, to swear off, or renounce upon oath. 
N. B. A in many instances, does little else than confirm 
the meaning of the word, and has an equivalent significa- 
tion with on to in or at. As ashore, on shore, abed, afar, 

ad. When a prefix, signifies to, increasing, or adding 
something more to the primitive import. a ac af ag al 


an ap ar as at, are only different modifications of ad and 
have the same signification, usually adding something more 
to the primitive import ; as join, to unite. -Adjoin, to unite 
to. Credit, to believe. .Accredit, to give belief to. Lo- 
cation, A /location, .Aspire, Affix, .Annex, .Approximate, Ar- 
rival, Assign, .Attest, Aggress. 

N. B. The phraseology need not be confined to the word 
to, but may vary in any manner, which will imply addition, 
as .Accord, to agree with. 

.Adjacent, near by. .Assure, to make more certain. 

ambi. Implies two, twofold, or doubtful ; as .Am&idexter, 
using both hands equally well. -Ambiguous, of doubtful 

ante. Always denotes before, either in time or place ; as 
Antedate, .Antechamber, .Antediluvian, .Antepast. 

ant, anti. Denote against, or opposition ; as .Antichrist, 

all. When used as a prefix, simply enlarges the signifi- 
cation, and is equivalent to most, wholly, or in the highest 
degree ; AJ/-cheering, Most cheering, .AZZ-abandoned, wholly 

after. Always implies behind, or later, in some sense ; 
as Afterozxt, Afterlove, Afternoon. 

be. As a prefix denotes nearness, about, to make, on, or 
at. It is derived from some root, signifying to press ; as 
.Bedaub, .Bedew, Besmear, Bedeck. 

bene. Always implies good, or well; as Benevolent, 
Wishing well, Benefactor, Benediction. 

bi, bis. Are the same, and as prefixes, mean two ; as 
Bisect, to cut into two parts, Biennial, once in two years. 

by. When used as a prefix, means nearness, closeness, 
withdrawing, or seclusion ; as By-stander, By-path, By- 

cis. On this side, cis- Alpine, on this side the Alps. 

centu. \ A hundred, or by the hundred; as Centu- 

centi. > plicate, to make a hundred fold. Centiped, an 

cent. j hundred feet. Centennial, consisting of a 
hundred years. ' 

contra. Signifies against, or in opposition to ; as Contra- 
vene, to oppose, or come against. 

co, com, cog, con, col, cor. Have a common significa- 


tion, indicating union, or connexion, in some sense, and are 
nearly equivalent to with, joined with, and in connexion with, 
or together; as Join to unite. Conjoin, to unite with. 
Press, to squeeze. Compress, to squeeze together. Cog- 
nate, Concordant, Co/location, Corroborate, Co-exist. 

circum. Always implies around, or about ; as Circum- 
navigate, to sail around. Circumvent, Circumscribe. 

counter. Signifies opposite, against, or corresponding ; 
as Counteract, to act against. Counterpart, Countermand. 

de. When a prefix, usually implies from, down, separa- 
ting or removing from, and a negative sense. Deduce, to lead 
or draw ^ron?. Debase, to bring down. Debark, Dethrone, 
Decapitate, Debar, Derange. 

N. B. It sometimes adds more intensity to the meaning; 
as Deprave, Denounce. 

di, dis, dif. Imply separation, disunion, out, not, or two ; 
also, to take away, in a privative or negative sense ; as Di- 
verge, to move in different directions. Disarm, to deprive 
of arms. Displace, Disgrace, Divulge, Diffuse, Divide, 
Disuse. Dishonest, not honest, Disinter, to take out, &c 

deCa. Means ten ; as Decagon, ten angles. Decalogue. 

E, ex, ef, ec. Commonly imply out, out of, from, or be- 
yond ; as Merge, to put under water. .Emerge, to come 
out. Evade, to escape from. Exclude, .Exonerate, .Ex- 

N. B. In some cases they do little else than to add em- 
phasis ; as Exasperate, to make more angry. Exact, very 
exact. Extend, to advance further. Extreme, to the very 

en, em. Are a substitute for in, and generally increase, 
the primitive signification ; as Enlighten, to afford more 
light. Embed, to lay in a bed. Entangle, Ensnare, En- 
trap, Enforce, Embase. 

ed. Implies good, well, or praise ; as Ewphonic, agreea- 
ble in sound. Eulogize, to praise. 

equi. Implies equal, as Eo?/ilaterrd, equal sides. 

extra. Signifies beyond, more than, or excess; as Ex- 
travagant, wandering beyond the usual limits. 
'fore. Generally denotes priority, either in time or 
place ; as Eorewarn, Foresee, .Foreknow, Eoreshow. 

for. When a prefix to verbs, is a negative or a privative, 


denoting against, away, or aside ; as Forbear, to abstain 
from. .Forbid to utter a prohibition. 

hex, hexa. Always mean six. Hexagon six angles. 

high. As a prefix implies elevated, lofty, or high, either 
in place, rank, degree, quality or condition, as High-built, 
High-minded, High-born, High-fed, High-sounding. 

im, in, ig, il, ir. When prefixed to adjectives, give them 
a negative sense, nearly equivalent to not ; as ignoble, not 
noble, impossible, not possible, inseparable, what can- 
not be separated, //legal, not legal, irrational, not ration- 
al, implacable, insufferable, //legible, irreligious. But 
when prefixed to verbs, and in some instances to other parts 
of speech, they add more intensity, or increase the force of 
signification, as impose, to lay upon. Infix, to fasten, or fix 
in. Illume, to enlighten, irritate, to excite anger. Implant. 

inter. Always implies among, or between, as Intercede, 
to pass between, or mediate, Interact, Interweave, Inter- 
fere, Intercbange, Intermingle. 

intro. Means within, into, or nearness, as in^rogression, 
entering within. Introduce, Intromission. 

infra. Means below, under, or underneath ; as in/ramun- 
dane, under the world. 

juris. Implies legal, or by lawful right ; as Jurisdiction. 
legal right over, Jurisprudence, legal science. 

jdxta. Means near by, or next ; as Juarteposition being 
placed in nearness. 

mis. Implies a wrong use, or misapplication, error or erro- 
neous, derived from the verb miss, to err. .Misplace, to 
place wrong. .Misrule, .Misbehave, Mismanage. 

male, mal. Mean evil, or bad ; as Ma/ediction, speaking 
evil. Maltreat, to treat ill, or evil. Malefactor, Malevolent, 

multi. Signifies many ; as Multiform, many forms. 

manu. Means a hand ; as .Manumit, to free from sla- 
very. Manufacture, made by hand. 

un. Prefixed to verbs, is a privative, and implies undoing 
or depriving ; as Unlace, to undo what had been done. But 
when prefixed to adjectives or participles, it is anegative, or 
the same as not. 

non. Always gives a negative sense to words, similar 
to not. 


ne. is used for non, and means negation or not ; as Un- 
wise, not wise. Untrue, not true. iVonsense, not sense 
ZTVikind, Unsafe, iVonconformist, iVonsolvent, iVonentity 
Untie, Neuter, not either. 

noct. Implies night, as iVocftirnal, by night. 

ob, oc, of, op. In general denote in front, before, against 
towards, in, or on ; as Objection, something brought against 
Occur, to meet or come in front of. Offence, Oppose 06- 
duce, Obtrude. 

over. Implies above, beyond, excess, or too much. Over- 
pay, to pay too much. Overbear, Overrate, Overact. 

out. Denotes beyond, or to exceed, what the prim- 
itive means ; as Out-run, Out-do, Out-man, OuMive, Out- 

omni. Is prefixed to a few words, and is always equiva- 
lent to all ; as Owmi'scient, All-wise, Owm'potent, A//-pow- 

octo, octa. ) Signify eight ; as Octonocular,* having 

oct. J eight eyes. Octagon, eight angles. Oct- 

ennial, every eighth year. 

pleni. Signifies full. Plenipotentiary, having full 

penta. Means five ; as Pentagon, five angles. 

preter. Implies beyond, past, hence, beside, or more; as 
Preternatural, beyond what is natural. Preterlegal, beyond 
the limits of the law. Preterpluperfect, Preter-it. 

post. Commonly denotes after ; as Postmeridian, after- 
noon, Posthumous. 

pro. Denotes fore, forth, forward, or out ; as Probation, 
^ore-trial. Produce, to bring forth. Proceed, Promote, 
Propel, to drive forward. 

per. Implies more intensity, through, by, very, or passing 
through, or over the whole extent ; as Pervade, to pass 
through the whole. Perambulate, to walk through. Per- 
ceive, to receive impressions through the senses. Per-day, 
Per-chance, Per-annum, Per-cent. 

pre. Denotes before, in time or rank ; as Premeditate, 
to reflect on before. Presuppose, Premonition, Pre-eminent, 
Preconceive, Predispose. 

* n is euphonic. 


quad. Means four. Quadrate, four equal sides. 

re. Generally denotes again, repetition, back, or return ; 
as .Re-enter, to enter again, Reassert, .Repay, .Repeople, 
jRejoin, .Relapse. 

N. B. In some words, re, has lost its original meaning, 
as .Rejoice, Receive, &c. 

retro, means back or back ward; as Retrograde. 

sub, sue, suf, sue ) Signify under, below, after or a 

sup, subter, sus. y subordinate degree ; as Subduce, 
to draw under. Succeed, to come after, or follow. Sup- 
plant, to undermine. Suffix, what is added at the end of 
a word. Subterfluent, flowing under. Subterraneous, 
Suggest, Sustain. 

semi, hemi, demi. Always imply one half; as Sewtt'-an- 
nual, i/ewusphere, Demigod, Semicircle. 

se. Denotes separation, aside or apart ; as Secede, to 
separate, from. Seduce, to draw aside. 

super, supra, sur.* Imply beyond, upon, above, or over 
and above. Superfine, very fine, or over and above fine. 
Supramundane, above the world. Surcharged, over charged. 
S?/rvey, Surmount, Superficial, Supernumerary. 

self. As a prefix implies, by the person or thing alone. 
Self-taught, taught by one's self alone. Se//~-sufficient. 

sex. Means six ; as Sexennial, once in six years. 

soli. Means one or alone ; as Sofcloquy, talking alone or 
to one's self. 

sine. Means without ; as Sine-die, without day. 

trans, ultra. Denote across, beyond, over, or a change. 
Trans-Atlantic, across the Atlantic. Transplant. Ultra- 
Montane, beyond the Mountain. 

tri. Always means three ; as Triangle, three angles. 

tetra. Means four; as Tetragon, four corners or an- 

uni. Implies one. Uniform, t/nicorn, Univocal. 

under. Implies beneath, inferior or subordinate ; as Un~ 
derrate, Underxalne, Undermine, Undersell. 

with. This word, as a prefix, implies opposition, priva- 
tion, separation, departure, or place where Withstand, to 
stand in opposition to. Withhold, Withdraw, Within. 

* Sur is a contraction of Super. 


poly. Means many; as Polysyllable, many syllables 
Polygon, many angles. 

Greek words or parts of words and prepositions used as 

a. Is a Greek privative, taking away something ; as 
Chromatic, pertaining to color, Achromatic, deprived or des- 
titute of color. 

amphi. Means about, around ; as Amphitheatre, an edi- 
fice in a circular form. 

ana. Has many significations, among which are back, 
up, through. Anabaptist, one who baptizes again. 

arch. Means chief or principal. ArcA-Bishop, the 
chief Bishop. 

astro. A Star ; as Agronomy, the law of the Stars. 

auto. One's self. Autographic, pertaining to one's own 
hand writing. 

apo, aph. From, away from. Apogee, from the earth, 
ApAelion, from the sun. 

bio. Life. jB?ography, the written life of some person. 
_biblio. A book. Bibliography, a description of books. 
^nSR^tn/v^Time. Chronology, the science of time. 

choro. TK&jiuarticular place. Chorography, giving a map 
or description ioF a particular place or region. 

chiro. The hand. CAiVography, a writing with one's 
own hand. 

cosmo. The world or universe. Cosmography. The de- 
scription of the world. 

cata. Against, down. Catabaptist, one who opposes 

dia, di. Through. Diameter, measuring through. Di- 

dys. Bad, ill or difficult. Dyspeptic, bad or difficult di- 

epi. In, on or upon. .Epidemic, on the people. 

entomo. An insect. Entomology, treating of insects. 

geo. The earth. Geography, a description of the earth. 

genea. The lineage or descent. Genealogy , the lineage 
of persons from their ancestry. 

homo. Of the same nature, kind, or qualities. Homoge- 
neous, of the same nature or kind. 

hetero. Of another nature or kind, or discordant qualities 


Heterodoxy, principles discordant with the received doc- 
trines of the church. 

hepta. Seven. Heptagon, seven angles. 

helio. The sun. Heliocentric, distance from the sun's 

hex, or hexa. Six. Hexagon, six angles. 

hydro. Water. Hydrology, the science of water. 

hyper. Over or excess. Hypermeter, exceeding the ordi- 
nary standard of measure. 

ichthyo. AJish. Ichthyology, The science of fishes. 

lexico. A dictionary. Lexicography, writing a dic- 

litho. A stone. Lithography, the art of engraving on 

mono. One or alone, ikfowochord, having one string or 

meta. A change, after, beyond, next, together, (many sen- 
ses.) Metahasis, a transition or change of place. Meta- 
morphose, to change the form. 

mytho. A fable. .Mycologist, a writer of fables. 

miso, ) From Misos, hatred. Misogamist, a hater 
& mis. S °f marriage. Mwanthropy, hatred of man- 

osteo. A bone. Osteology, a description of bones. 

ortho. Right or correct. Orthology, the right descrip- 
tion of things. 

ornitho. A fowl. Ornithology, the science of fowls. 

philo. > A friend or lover. Philosopher, a lover of 

phil. y wisdom. P/»7anthropist, a lover of mankind. 

peri. Near, under, around or about. Perigee, nearest 
the earth. 

para. Against, superior, near, similar, together with. It 
has various senses. Paradox, against or contrary to re- 
ceived opinions. 

pan, panto. All. Pantheon, a temple dedicated to all 
the gods. Pantomime. 

pyro. Fire or heat. Pyrotechnic, the art of making 

physico. ) Nature, pertaining to nature. Physicologic, 

physio. J Logic illustrated by Natural Philosophy 



syn, sy. } hi common with, together with, to, or row- 

syl, sym. \ currence. (Synthesis, putting two or more 
propositions or things together. SyZlable, Sympathy, suf- 
fering with, or having correspondent feelings with those 

steno. Brief, short, strait. Stenographer, one who writes 
short hand. 

stereo. Solid, firm. Stereotype, fixed or solid metal 

topo. A place, tract, or region. Topographer, one who 
describes some particular place. 

theo. God. Theology, the science of God or divine 

typo. A mark, letter ox figure. Typographic, pertaining 
to printing. 

zoo. An animal or beast. Zoography, a description of 


Explanation of the Suffixes. 

Although the Suffixes will not admit of as precise defi- 
nitions as the Prefixes, still they can be classed so as to an- 
swer the more general purposes of defining words. 

A Suffix is a letter or letters, a syllable or syllables, or 
whatever is appended to the end of a word, to add force, 
vary or modify its signification. 

The word act, means something done, or to do something. 
Now add or, and it becomes actor, and means the person 
who does something. 

Imprison, means to confine in some place. Now add 
ment, and it becomes imprisonment, and implies the act of 
confining in some place. Such terminations, we denom- 
inate Suffixes. The following are the principal in our lan- 
guage. We will now endeavor to class and define them, 
according to their general import. 

able, ible, ble. These communicate a potential signi- 
fication to the word, and may generally be defined by such 
expressions as the following, joined to the primitive import : 

That may be, capable of, capable of being, fit or worthy 


to be. (Sometimes) pertaining to, the capacity of, or the 
state; as 

Audible, that may be heard. 

Flexible, that may be bent. 

F&yable, Foriable, Legible 

Eligible, Jit or worthy to be chosen. 

ile. Is sometimes defined like able, and sometimes by, 
belonging to, pertaining to, or easily ; as 

Flexile, that may be bent, or easily bent. 

PueriZe, belonging to a boy. 

Juveni/e, pertaining to youth. 

ableness, ibleness. > May be rendered, the property 

ability, ibilitv. $ or quality capable of being, or 

that may be, the capacity or state of, or the property or qual- 
ity susceptible of. 

Divisibility, the property or quality capable of being divi- 

Compressibility, the quality that ;nay fee pressed together, 
or capable of being, &c. 

Inrlammafe/ene.s-.s', the quality susceptible of flame, or of 
taking fire. 

Incurability, the state of being incurable. 

Commensurableness, the capacity of being compared. 

Accountability, the state of being accountable. 

ance, ancy. ) Imply the existing state or condition ; 

ence, ency. $ (sometimes) the act of, the result of an 
act, or the thing itself. 

Dependence or Dependency, the state of hanging- down 
from a supporter. 

Emergence, Emergency, the act of rising out of or the 
event itself. 

Contrivance, the act of inventing or the thing invented. 

Compliance, the act of complying, or result of the 

ant, ent. Sometimes mean the person or thing ; as 

Defendant, one who defends. 

President, one who does, or has presided over. 

Solvent, that thing which produces solution. 

ant & ent. In most other cases are defined by a judi- 
cious use of ing ; as 

Adherent, sticking to ; also the person who. 


Incumbent, lying- or resting on ; also the person. 

Refulgent, shining- or casting- a light. 

ion, tion, ation. ) Imply the act of, or state of being. 

sion, cation. > (Sometimes) the state, condition, re- 
sult, or thing itself ; as 

Union, the act of joining, or the state of being joined. 

Persuasion, the act of persuading, or the state of being 

Abasement, the act of humbling, or the state of being 

Fortification, the act of fortifying, or the thing itself, when 
made strong. 

Civilization, the act of civilizing, or the state of being 

en, ty. > Commonly mean to make or made of, to be- 

fit, fic. S come, or to produce. 

Soften, made soft, or softer. 

Silken, made of silk. 

Stupe/y, to make stupid. 

Ossi/y, to become bone. 

Sudori/ic, producing sweat. 

ory, tory, sory. Usually imply containing, tending to, 
belonging to, the power of, the nature of or the place. 

Mandatory, containing a command. 

Inflammatory, tending to inflammation. 

Compulsory, having the power of compelling. 

Observatory, the place of making observations. 

DefammaZory, Explanatory. 

ity, ty, cy. Generally express the substantive existence 
of that quality, found in the primitive, and may be defined 
by, state, condition, or thing itself. (Sometimes) by quality, 
ox power of. 

Divine, is a quality pertaining to divinity. 

Divinity, is the state of being divine, or deity. 

Moral, is a quality pertaining to. 

Morality, is the very essence of that quality, or the thing 
itself So vital, vitality. 

Ductile, Ductility. Sterile, Sterility. Carnal, Car- 

Efficacy, the poicer of effecting. 


ER, or, an, ian, cian, ast. \ Imply the person who, in 

ess, ress, ee, eer, 1st. > most cases, except er, in 

ite, ine, san, zen, ix. ) adjectives of the compara- 

tive degree, and occasionally some of the other termina- 

Baker, Instructor, Historical, Christian 

Musician, Enthusiast, Poetew, Instructress. 

Assignee, Auctioneer, Formalin, Canaanite. 

Heroine, Executrix, Artisan, Denizen. 

ar, ary, ard, ive. ) Occasionally imply a person, or 

ster, ado, ate, oso. £ thing ; as in 

Beggar, Missionary, Drunkard. 

Graduate, Captive, Teamster. 

Bravado, Virtuoso. 

ar, ary, ic, ical. \ Most commonly, are rendered 

ile, ine, tial. > pertaining to, relating to, or like. 

cial, ac, al. ) (Sometimes) belonging to ; as 

Consular, pertaining to a consul. 

Planetary, pertaining to the planets. 

Dramatic, Metaphorical, Juvenile. 

Feminine, Demoniac, Potential, Commercial. 

al. Sometimes implies the act of ; as 

RefusaZ, ReprisaZ, Espousal, Avowal. 

ive. Means having a tendency to, having the power of. 
(Sometimes) containing, the nature of, relating to. (Occa- 
sionally) that may be, the quality of, or person ; as 

Delusive, having a tendency to deceive. 

Expansile, having the power to expand. 

Exhortative, containing exhortation. 

Instinctive, the nature of instinct. 

Conversative, relating to intercourse with men. 

Relaxative, having the quality of relaxing. 

Executive, the person ivho executes the laws. 

ate. When an adjective, expresses some quality, and as 
such, may be defined having the quality or qualities of; ay 

Effeminate, having the qualities of the female sex. 

It is the termination to a numerous class of words, and 
when a verb, may be rendered by the preposition to, or to 
make. The word, however, with this Suffix, generally ex- 
presses its own appropriate meaning most clearly. 

Accelerate, to hasten, or to quicken motion. 


Alleviate, to lighten, or to make lighter. 

Abbreviate, to shorten, or to make shorter. 

age. Signifies the rank, office, state, condition, allowance 
or ability to give or receive ; as 

Peerage, the rank of a Peer. 

Pupilage, the state of being a scholar. 

Parentage, condition as respects the rank of a parent. 

Postage, Carriage &c, an allowance. 

dom, ric. Imply jurisdiction, or possession, by a prince, 
or bishop. 

ism. Signifies a doctrine or the principles of , the state, that 
which is peculiar to, an idiom or science. 

Protestantism, the principles of a protestant. 

Naturalism, the mere state of nature. 

Anglicism, peculiar to the English idiom. 

ize. Signifies to do, to perform, to make, to give, or to 
assimilate; as 

Equalise, to make equal. 

Legalise, to make lawful. 

Tyramze, to act the Tyrant. 

Authorize, to give authority. 

Brutalize, to make brutal. 

ics. Generally implies the science, doctrine or art of, 
what the primitive alludes to ; as 

Acoustics, the science of sounds. 

Optics, the science of light and vision. 

ish. Means in some degree like, somewhat, belonging to, 
or national ; as 

Heathenis//, in some degree like a heathen. 

Greem'sA, somewhat green. 

Spanzs/i, national, or belonging to Spain. 

less. Shows the primitive to be destitute of what it is 
capable of being, and may be rendered, without, or destitute 
of; as 

Hopeless, without, or destitute of hope. 

House/ess, Fear/ess, Grace/ess, Color/ess. 

ling, kin, cle, ule. Imply little or young ; as 

Duckling a little duck. 

"Witling, a little wit. 

Lamb&m, a little lamb. 

Vesicte, a little bladder. 


Yersicle a little verse. 

Globule, a little globe. 

SpheruZe, a little sphere. 

ness. Denotes the abstract quality of. (Sometimes) the 
simple quality or state. 

Roundness, is an abstract quality, without reference to 
any particular thing, in which it is found. 

Whiteness, Goodness, Greatness, Softness. 

Soundness, is the state of being sound, (in its sense.) 

ous, ceous. Generally mean, partaking of, resembling 
or like. (Sometimes,) /«// of, or consisting of; as 

Dangerous, partaking of danger. 

Argillaceous, consisting of argil. 

Perilous, full of peril. 

Populous,^// of people. 

Bilious, consisting of bile. 

Tumultuous, Laborious. 

ous, (after) fer, making ferous. Commonly means, pro- 
ducing or causing ; as — 

Somni/erous, producing or causing sleep. 

Omni/erous, producing, all kinds. Pesti/erows. 

oid. Signifies, resembling, or in the form of. 

Sphenoid, resembling a wedge. 

Varioloid, the name given to a disease resembling small- 

Typhoid, Asteroid, Spheroid, Metalloid. 

some. Has various significations in its connexions, but 
more generally means, possessing a degree of, somewhat, or 
full of; as 

Delightsome, possessing a degree of delight. 

Troublesome, Loathsome, Gladsome. 

hood. Means state or condition. (Sometimes) office or 
quality. ~~ 

Manhood, the state of one who is a man. 

HardiAood, the quality of being bold, or dauntless. 

Boy hood, the state of a boy. 

Priesthood, the office of a priest. 

ship. Denotes office, or state, district or territory. 

Professorship, the office of a professor. 

Relations/tip, the state of being related to. 

Township, the district of a town. 


tude, tjde. Usually convert the quality of the adjective, 
into a substantive form, and may be rendered the state or 
state of being ; as 

Amplitude, the state or extent of capacity, from ample. 

ward. Means in a direction, indicated by the primitive. 

Northward, Eastward, Upward, Downward, Homeward. 

ful, ose. Denote full of full or abundance, as 

Play ful, full of play. 

Verbose, full of words. 

Operose, full of labor. 

"Needful, Careful, Hopeful. 

ly. Means like, in a manner, or resembling. 

ManZy, like a man. 

Courageously, in a courageous manner. 

ly, when united to a primitive, as in manly, usually im- 
plies like ; when it follows a Suffix, it expresses the manner, 
as in courageously. 

URE. Commonly denotes the act, state, or thing. (Some- 
times,) the power, or art of. 

Composure, the act of composing, or the state of being 

Architecture, the art of building. 

ery, ry, y. Seem to imply an art or practice ; as 

Witchery, Quackery, Cookery, Heraldry, Husbandry, 
Sophistry. A place where something is done or kept ; as 
Butchery, Fishery, Factory, Brewery, Armory, Nunnery. 
A state ; as Beggar?/, Slavery, or the possession of some- 
thing, as Wealthy, Sandy, Shady. 

ed. Is a verbal and participial termination, implying past 
time of action. It expresses its own meaning, yet may 
sometimes be made more explicit by adding, was or did, to 
the past tense of the verb ; as 

I Walked, meaning I did walk. 

ing. Is a participial termination implying a time of pro- 
gressive action, and may be rendered with direct reference 
to that time, continuing to. 

ing, is frequently used to express some article or 
thing : as. 

Clothmo', Shipping. 

It must be remembered, that the foregoing definitions to 
the Suffixes, cannot be expected precisely to meet every 


case in the language ; but from careful examination of some 
thousands of words, it is believed they will answer all the 
common purposes of defining ; and generally, enable the 
pupil, clearly to perceive the several modifications of im- 
port, produced by their combinations with the primitive 


Alphabetical Synopsis of all the Prefixes, or words used as 
such, varying the import of more than twenty thousand 

a ab abs. 

Separating, departure, taking from, 

ad a ac af ag al ) 
an ap ar as at. $ 

To, (implying some addition.) 


Both, twofold, doubtful. 

amb am amphi. 

About, around. 



ant anti. 

Against, opposition. (Sometimes) 


Most, wholly, in the highest degree. 


Behind, later. 

(As a Greek privative,) taking away. 


(For ad) to. 


Back, again, up, through. 


A star. 


One's self. 

apo aph. 

From, away from. 


Nearness, about, to make, on or at. 


Good, well. 

bi bis. 





A book. 




A particular place. 


The hand. 


The world. 

centu, centi, cent. 

A hundred. 


Against, opposition. 


co com cog, ) 
con col cor. $ 



di dis dif. 






e ex ef ec. 










hexa hex. 



im in ig ) 
ilir $ 


With, joined with, in connection 
with, together. 

Around, about. 

(For contra) opposite, against, cor- 
responding or addition. 

From, down, separating from, or a 
negative sense. 

Separation, disunion, two, out, not. 



Bad, ill, difficult. 

In, or on. 

An insect. 

(For ex) out, out of, beyond, from. 

In, or to make, (adding strength of 

Good, well, praise. 


Beyond, more than, excess. 

Priority, or before. 

Against, away, aside. 

The earth. 

Lineage, or descent. 

Of the same nature, kind or quali- 

Of another nature or kind, discord- 
ant qualities. 


The Sun. 



Over, excess. 

Elevated, more than is common, or 
high (in some sense.) 

Among, between. 

Not, (with an adjective,) in, into, 
on, (with a verb, adding intensity 
of meaning.) 

Within, into, nearness. 

Below, under, underneath. 

A fish. 



Legal, by lawful right. 


Near, near by, next. 


A dictionary. 


A stone. 


One, alone. 

miso mis. 

Hatred (gr. miseo or misos.) 


A fable. 


A change, after, beyond, according to 


Wrong use, misapplication, error, er 

roneous. (From miss to err.) 

male mal. 

Evil, bad. 




A hand. 

non ne un. 

Not, undoing, depriving. 



ob oc of op. 

In front, before, against, towards, in 
or on, in the way, out. 


Above, beyond, excess. 


Beyond, to exceed. 



octo octa oct. 



A bone. 


Right or correct. 


A fowl, or bird. 

philo phil. 

A friend or lover. 


Near, under, around. 


Against, superior, near, similar. 

pan panto. 



Fire or heat. 

physico physio. 

Nature, pertaining to nature. 






Beyond, past, hence, beside, more. 






Fore, forth, forward, out. 

Through, by, very, (more intensity,) 


passing through or over the 



Before, (in time or rank.) 





Again, repetition, back, return. 
Back, backward. 

sub sue suf 


Under, below, after, in a subordinate 

sup subter sus. $ 
semi heini demi. 

One half. 


super supra 




Separation, aside, apart. 

Beyond, above, upon, over and above. 

By the person or thing alone. 



One, alone. 



sym syn syl 


In connexion with, together with, to. 
Brief, strait, short. 


Solid, firm. 




trans ultra, 

A place, tract, or region. 
A mark, letter or figure. 
Across, beyond, over, a change. 






Beneath, inferior, subordinate. 


Opposition, privation, separation, de- 


parture, place where. 
An animal or beast. 


Give the meaning 
prefixes and define it 

im omni pleni. 
circum inter ad. 
cent sept dec } 
per tri sex oct. $ 
circum col sub. 

com e re trans. 

re com pro. 
circum subter 
super inter con 
male bene 


this be often repeated. 

of the primitive alone, then join its 

Potent, having power. 
Jacent, lying. 

Bi,ennial, once in two years. 

Ligation, the act of binding. 
Migrate, removing from one country 

to another. 
Ex,pel, to drive out. 

Fluent, a flowing. 

Factor, an agent or doer. 


mono poly > 
pan tri a. $ 
circum super sub. 
inter dis con. 
circum abs re ex. 
sub ab de e } 
in re pro con. \ 
geo auto bio ) 
cosmo biblio. $ 
astro hydro 
chrono zoo. 

dis en un. 
col e re. 
dis pre. re. 
re en dis. 
mis ad pre. 
ante post mis. 
preter il. 
counter mal. 
helio geo ec. 
in mis. 
im preter. 
con ad. 
in over, 
con dis. 
af pre post, 
ultra sub trans, 
ad con dis re. 
mis pre re. 
ante post, 
multi equi In 
tri uni mal. 
dis tri poly mono. 
de be counter, 
pre self mis. 
en disen. 
hemi semi dcmi. 
co under, 
re dis. 

Theist, one who believes there is a 

Inscribe, to write in or on. 
Seminate, to sow. 
In,cision, a cutting into. 

Adject, to cast at. 

Graphic, writing of, or describing- 
Logical, art of reasoning, speaking 
of, or treating of any subject. 














Ac, cord. 
















Synopsis of Suffixes modifying the signification ef more 
than fifty thousand words. 

The most common definition is given, while reference 
may be had to the others, as occasion shall require. 

That may be, capable of being, state. 
The property, or quality that may be, 

or capable of being. Capacity 

or state. 
The state, condition, or act of, the 

(The judicious use of) ing, or the 

person, or thing. 
The act of, or state of being, the 

Having the quality of, to, or to make 
The rank, office, state, allowance. 
To make, made of, to become. 

The person who, (with some excep- 

(Occasionally,) the person, or thing. 

(Generally) pertaining to, relating to, 
belonging to, like. 

State, condition, office. 

That may be, pertaining to, easily. 

State, or condition, the reality. 

Having a tendency to, the power or 
nature of. 

Doctrine, state, peculiar to, science. 

To make, to give, to assimilate. 

The science, doctrine, art. 

Some degree like, somewhat, na- 

Without or destitute of. 

able ible ble. 

ableness ibleness 
ability ibility. 

ance ancy } 
ence ency. $ 

ant ent. 

ation cation ion 

tion sion ment. 



en fy fit fie. 

er or an ian ix 

cian ast ess ress 

ee eer ist ite ine 

san zen. 

ar ary ard ate } 

ive ster ado oso. S 

ar ary ic al 

ical ile ine ac 

tial cial. 



ity ty cy. 





Ke" \ A little ' >' 0un S- 

i Like in a manner, in a (speak the 

*' word) manner, 

ful ose. Full of, full, abundance. 

The abstract quality of, the quality 

of, state. 
ous Partaking of, full of, like, consisting 

Producing, causing. 
Resembling, the form of. 
Containing, tending to, nature of, 

Jurisdiction or possession (of prince 

or bishop.) 
Office, state, district. 
State of being, state of, capacity. 
In a direction, (indicated by the 

The act, art, state, or thing. 
Art or practice, place, state, posses- 
sion, or thing. 
Possessing a degree of, somewhat, 

full of. 
Did, was. 
Continuing (with reference to time 


Give the meaning of the primitive alone, then with the 
prefix and suffix joined. 

Destine, to ordain, or decree, 
pre. Destin ation ed. 

Numerate, to number, 
in. Numera ble bly. 

Navigate, to sail, 
circum. Naviga ble tion. 

Manage, to direct, 
mis. Manage ment. 

un. Manag able ably. 

Retrieve, to regain, 
ir. Retriev ableness ably. 


ory tory sory. 

ric dom. 

tude ude. 



ery ry y. 





Separate, to divide. 


Separa bly bleness. 


Separa bility. 

Prompt, ready. 


Prompt ness. 

Assess, to fix a tax. 


Assess or. 

Plot, to contrive a plan. 


Plot ment ter. 

Guide, to direct. 


Guid ance ing. 

Fertile, fruitful. 


Fertil ity. 

Grace, favor, beauty, virtue. 


Grace ful, ness. 

Reside, to dwell permanently. 


Resid ent ence. 

Camp, to fix tents. 


Camp ment. 

Bold, daring, brave. 


Bold en, ed. 

Scar, a mark, blemish. 


Scari fy. 

Dense, thick, compact. 


Dens ity ation. 

Lacerate, to tear or rend. 


Lacerat ed ion. 

Sign, to write or sign. 


Sign ee- or ment. 

Line, a long mark. 


Line ation ed. 



Republican ism. 

Liberal, free, generous. 


Liberal ly ity. 

Intimate, to be familiar. 


Intima cy tion. 

Press, to squeeze. 


Press ure ible. 

Inspect, to look on or view. 


Inspect ion. 


Peer, a nobleman, 
com. Peer age. 

Fuse, to melt, 
in. Fus ible ibility. 

Delicate, fine, fair, nice, 
in. Delica cy. 

Describe, to represent, 
in. Descript ive. 

Grand, noble, great, 
ag- Grand ize, ment. 

Melody, succession of agreeable sounds, 
im. Melodi ous, ly. 

Drama, a tragedy, or comedy, 
un. Dramat ic. 

Compel, to drive by force, 
non. Compuls ory. 

Sphere, a globe, 
semi. Spher ic, al. 

Partner, one in company, 
co. Partner ship. 

Conform, to agree with, 
non. Conform ist ity. 


Classification of Suffixes. 

The Suffixes appear to combine in groups of a similar 
kind, and follow each other, in most cases, with some good 
degree of uniformity ; and at the same time, present two 
important facts ; viz. the regular formation of most of our 
derivative words, and the entire uniformity in the orthogra- 
phy of an immense number of their suffixes. 

The most common definition is given to the suffix, when 
standing singly with its primitive, and when found in its 
different combinaiions with other suffixes. Thus : 

fill. Full of, abundance, 

fully. In a manner full of, or in a — manner, 

fullness. The quality of being full of, or state. 

less. Without, or destitute. 

















able ible, 

ableness ibleness > 
ability ibility. $ 

ably ibly. 






In a manner without, or in a- — -man- 
The quality of being without, or 

In some degree like, somewhat. 
In a manner some degree like, or in 

a- manner. 

The quality in some degree like. 
Partaking of, like, full of. 
In a manner partaking of, or like. 
The quality of, partaking of, or state. 
Having a tendency to, containing, the 

nature of. 
In a manner tending to, or partaking 

of, or in a manner. 

The quality tending to, or partaking 

Possessing a degree of, somewhat. 
In a manner possessing a degree of, 

or in a manner. 

The quality possessing a degree of, 

or state. 

The quality like, or of being. 
That may be, or state. 
The quality or property that may be, 

capacity or state. 
In a manner that may be, or in a 

To make, to assimilate. 
Was or did. (Speak the Word.) 
Continuing to. (Referring to the time 

The act of, or state of being. 
To, to make. 
Did, or was. 
Continuing to. 
Having a tendency to, or the power 

Containing, the nature of, place. 
The act of, or thing. 













ical ic. 







ancy. ) 
ency. J 


That may be. 

To make. 

Was made. 


In a (repeat the word) manner. 

The quality of being, or the state. 

To make. 

Did or was. 

The person who. 

Continuing to. 

The act of, state or thing. 

Tending to. 

The person who. 

Tending to, the nature of. 

Pertaining to, relating to. 

The principles, state, peculiar to. 

In a manner pertaining to, &c. 

(Use) ing, (with the defining word.) 

In a manner. 

State, condition, act of, or thing. 

State, condition. 

Pertaining to. 
The person who. 
The principles, &c. 

General Rules for forming derivative words. 

1 . When the primitive word ends with the vowel e, drop 
that vowel before every Suffix beginning with a vowel, ex- 
cept ous. Sometimes ment is an exception as in judgment, 
e being dropped. 

2. When the letter y terminates a primitive, or occurs in 
any of the derivative forms, and in either case, other suf- 
fixes are added, y is commonly changed into e or i", except 
before ing; as 

Comely, Comeliness ; Duty, Duteous. 


N. B. Betray, and Buy, with a few other words, are 

3. When any part is cut off from the end of a word by 
an inverted comma, each suffix which is preceded by a 
similar inverted comma, must take the place of that part 
cut off; but no others may; as 

Legible ( bly ( bility ness. 
Now JJy, is to take the place of Jble, and forms Legibly ; 
and fiility, taking the same place, forms Legibility ; but 
ness not being preceded by the inverted comma, is added to 
Jble, and forms Legihieness. 

4. Each suffix has a separate union with its primitive 
word in all cases, unless a single comma intervenes, in 
which case, each subsequent suffix, as long as that comma 
is repeated, is united with the first of those two suffixes 
where the single comma commenced. 

In like manner if two or three commas are used togeth- 
er, they join additional suffixes on the same principles. 

Take two examples, and mark the application of the 

Argue ed er ing ment, al, able, ation, ative,, ly. Com- 
bined thus : 

Argue. Argument,al one comma, Rule 4. 

Argued, Rule 1. Argument,able. 

Arguer. Ax gurnet, ation. 

Arguing Argument, ative. 

Argument, excep. Rulel. Argument, ative „ly two commas. 

Injure ed er ing y, ous,. ly„ ness. Combined. 
Injure. Injury. 

\u\ured. \u')uri,ous, one comma, and y changed to i. 

Injurer. \r\]uri,ous„ly. 

Injuring. Injurious,, ness. 

5. There are a few words, generally monosyllables, 
ending with a single consonant, before a single vowel, 
which double the final consonant in forming their deriva- 
tives. Thus Abet, makes abetted, abettor, abetting, except 
abetment So clip, clipped, entrap entrapped. Fret, fret- 
ted. Plan, planned 

6. When t or s precedes e final, in such words as admit 
tion or sion, e is dropped and the suffix is ion ; as 

Legate Legation, Expanse Expansion. 


7. Most words ending in fy, which is a contraction of 
facio or fio, after changing y into i, take cation ; as 

Dei/y Deification, Gratify, Gratification. 
Except Stupefy, with few others which makes Stupe/ac- 

8. Many words of Latin origin in ate, drop te, before 
ble; as 

Estimate Estimao/e, Agitate AgitaoZc. 
The same class of words not admitting ble, take cy, in 
its place ; as 

Accurate Accuracy, Adequate Adequacy. 
cy, is common to words in ance and ence, by dropping e 
final, and adding y. 

9. Words which take ize, as a suffix, commonly add 
ation ; as 

Civil, Civih>e, Civilization. 
Some others take ation, without ize ; as 

Sense Sensation, Exalt Exaltation. 


A brief examination as to the regular formation of derivative 
words in general. 

Manage ed er ing ment able, ness. Rule 

1,& 4. 
ZTVimanage ed able. 
Mismanage ed er ing ment. 
Navigate ed or ing ion ble. Rule 6, & 8. 
Renavigate ed ing. 
Circumnavigate or ion ble. 
Assign or ee ed ing ment able ation. 

Rule 9. 
Accord ed er ant ance able ing,ly. 
Modify ed er ing able cation. Rule 7. 
Affirm ed er ing able ably ant ance ation 

In this manner, a very numerous class of our primitive 
words, form their derivatives from a single root. The word 


Press, in connexion with its prefixes, has no less than 
eighty-three derivatives of the same regular formation. 

But there is another class of words, apparently in view 
of the English Scholar, either arbitrary or irregular in their 
terminations, which are nevertheless equally systematic, 
though not equally simple in the formation of their deriva- 
tives. Such are more especially of Lat. origin, and the ap- 
parent irregularity, arises from a formation growing out of 
a different branch of the same root. And though the En- 
glish Scholar may not exactly comprehend the whole pro- 
cess, yet his mind will in part be relieved from the embar- 
rassment. Take for example Adhesive. He will not 
doubt it is derived from Adhere, whence is, ent ence ency 
er. These are regular. Now the Lat. Adhereo makes its 
supine Adhesum, whence according to Sec. 3, is tion or 
sion as the supine is turn or sum. Hence from this branch 
of the same original root, Adhesum forms Adhes ion, Ad- 
hesive, Adhesively, Adhesiveness ; as regularly as the first 
formations are. Accede, is of the same order and forms 
accede ed ing. Then from Accessum, sec. 3. comes Ac- 
cession, and forms Accession al c ary,ness t ory,ness,al,ly ; 
all regular formations. Rule 3. 

Intelligence, Intellect and Intellectualist, are of the same 
order. From the Latin participle, Intelligens, comes Intel- 
ligence er ed ing 4 ent 4 ible,ness t ibility ,ibly. Rule 3. 

Now from the Latin perfect participle Intellectus, comes 
Intellect, whence Intellectjon 4 ive. Next the Latin supine 
Intellectu, whence is derived Intellectual ist ity ly. 

In such words as explain, expect, fatigue, &c, we arrive 
at a, in expectation, explanation, fatigaJzon, &c, through 
the medium of the Latin participles, explanatus, expectatus, 
and fatigatus ; but in some other words such as grade, a 
comes direct through the medium of the noun gradatio. 
Gradus forms gradu, whence we derive gradual ity ly ate, 
ed, ing, ion, or. 

Words of Lat. origin in ble, seem, either from accident or 
otherwise, to have the simple addition of ble to the Imp. 
Mode, first. Conj. second person singular, as Naviga ble, 
Numera ble, Demonstrao/e, Predica ble, Administra ble, &c. 
and in general the spelling able or ible is governed by the 
Lat. conjugations. The first makes able or ble all the oth- 


ers ible ; as InterminaWe, Impregnate, Legible, Audible, 

Method, Metaphor, Meteor and the like, are regular for- 
mations ; as Method ism ize ic,al„ly ist,ic„al ; except when 
a primitive taking ize, ends with a vowel, t is added ; as 
Stigmatize Dogma, tize. 

Form, makes form al,ism,ist,ity,ize,ly ed er ing ful less ; 
and formatio, makes formation ,tivc. 

The suffixes ous, ness, less, ful, ish, ism, age, en, ure, can 
hardly be mistaken, as Glory, Gloriows. Good, Goodness. 
Life, Lifeless. Play, Playful. Sweet, Sweetish. Tory, 
Toryism. Parent, Parentage. Soft, Soften. Fail, Failure. 
In some cases urc is less obvious as 'Tenure from Teneo. 

In this work, the root and each branch whence all the 
derivatives arise, will be given, so far as the Latin is con- 
cerned. So that each primitive word may be carried out 
through all its derivative forms, or traced back to its simple 
root, and discover how the primitive signification has been 
expanded into such a variety of figurative applications. 

On examination of something like seven hundred and 
thirty words, whose suffixes are carried out in this book, 
giving at least ten thousand derivatives, the regularity of for- 
mation will be still more obvious. 

This fact also, if duly regarded by teachers, will enable 
them to perfect their pupils in the correct orthography of 
derivative words, with far greater facility, and a far less 
tax on memory. To accomplish this, it is only necessary 
to learn distinctly, the true spelling of the several 
suffixes in their separate state, which may be done, 
almost at a single lesson. The spelling of the simple 
primitive can hardly be missed ; to which the joining of 
the several suffixes, completes the derivative word under 
most of its forms. It is true, there are many exceptions ; 
but it is equally true there are not less than thirty 
thousand words, whose spelling, as to their suffixes is 
the same, letter for letter. 



Special Rules for the Prefixes, which must be distinctly 
understood, both by the Teacher and the Student. 

Many words, so far as respects the English Language, 
are primitives ; yet in that language from which they are 
derived, they are either compound, or derivative words. 
Such especially are words of Greek and Latin origin. For 
example, Abscond, so far as our language alone is concern- 
ed, is a primitive word, because we have no such English 
word as scond. But in the Latin, from which it is derived, 
the word is a compound, from the preposition abs, con 
Sf do. Also Advert, in English, is primitive, but, in Latin 
from which it is derived, it is compounded of ad, meaning 
to, and Verto, to turn. Hence Advert signifies to turn to. 
Suppose the word to stand thus : a re Ad,vert. Now take 
away ad, and substitute a, which is another Latin preposi- 
tion, and it becomes A,vert, and literally means to turn away. 
Again drop a, and substitute re, in its place, and it becomes 
Re,vert, signifying to turn back. Hence it must not be for- 
gotten by the student, that in all cases, when one prefix is to 
be dropped, and another substituted in its place, the primi- 
tive word will be printed thus Con.vert, Ac,cord, Ex,clude, 
De,flect ; and that part of the word which precedes the 
comma, must be dropped, when another prefix is to be used. 


at dis de re pro. Contract, to draw together. 

Now drop con, and substitute pro, and it becomes Pro- 
tract, to draw out. Again drop pro, and substitute re, and 
it forms .Retract, to draw back. In the same manner de, 
forms Detract, to draw away from. Also dis, makes De- 
tract, to draw apart, or separate ; and at, forms Attract, to 
draw to, or unite. 

When no part of the primitive word is separated by a 
comma, the combination is simply to drop one prefix, and 
join another, according to the following : 

ad pre mis fore re. Judge. 


Now re, combined, makes i?ejudge, and each prefix in its 
turn, forms the words /orejudge, misjudge, prejudge and 

As many of the prefixes combine with each other the 
following examples will show the manner of combining 
them in this work. Take Inspect, 
un un 

a circum de 


re super 

mtro per pro su 
dis ir un 

In,spect, to look on or view. 

retro re. 

Explained thus. Each prefix under the horizontal line, 
or standing alone, unites with the primitive word, in the 
same manner as in Contract and Judge ; but the prefix or 
prefixes above the horizontal line, unite with the prefix un- 
der the line, while that prefix remains united to the primi- 
tive. Thus, Super and re standing above the line in con- 
nexion with In, combine with it, and form Superinspect, 
and reinspect. de standing alone takes the place of In, 
and forms despection. circum, under the line makes cir- 
cumspect, and un over the line, forms wncircwmspect. In 

the same manner a make aspect and unaspective. 

su , form suspect and unsuspecting. pro, per, intro, and 

dis ir un 

retro, being alone combine as in contract, while re 

make respect, disrespect, irrespective, and wnrespected. 

Take another example, 
fore un pre 

ad pre. Monition. These make premonition and 
admonition, then fore, un, and pre, above the line over ad, 
form, /ore-admonition, pre-admonition, and wiadmonished. 
If these directions are distinctly understood, and duly ob- 
served, there can be no mistake in the epplication of the 
prefixes. Every thing depends on the utmost precision in 
this particular. On this point, the Teacher must be scru- 
oulously exact, and the student as scrupulously attentive. — 



Another point to be observed in the prefixes, is their influ- 
ence on the primitive word. The most of them are uniform 
in their distinctive character of import, while a few, are 
used in two or more senses, widely different. Such are 
im, in, il, ir, &c. 

These prefixes, more generally, when united to verbs, in- 
crease, or strengthen the original meaning of the primitive 
words, as Im press, In fold, II luminate Ir radiate. In 
each case, additional force is given to press, fold, luminate, 
and radiate, by prefixing im in il and ir. But when the 
same prefixes are united to adjectives, and occasionally to 
some other parts of speech, they entirely reverse or change 
the primitive signification, as Im possible, In sensible, II 
legible, Ir rational. Each word now meaning the same as 
not possible, not sensible, not legible, and not rational 
Also de, e, ex, are used, sometimes to take something from 
the primitive word, as de. fame, ex onerate, elapse, which 
signify to deprive of fame, to free from load, and to slide 
away. And the same prefixes in other instances, add more 
or less to the primitive import, as deprave, excess, evince. 
Now let it be remembered in the case of all such prefixes 
as above named, when they in any manner add more force 
to the signification, or merely render its import more em- 
phatical, such prefix, or prefixes, are uniformly in this book, 
printed in the Italic character, and in no other case. For 
example im plant, in fold, ir radiate, ex tend, im possible, 
in formal, ir religious, ex elude. The Italics only, show 
a strengthened signification. This simple arrangement, 
will prevent mistakes in the teacher, though not a classical 
scholar himself, and prevent misapprehension in the stu- 

It is now thought the Prefixes have been explained so 
clearly, that no scholar of common capacity, who wishes 
to understand and apply them correctly, need mistake, al- 
though he may not be under the care of any teacher. 



Manner of Defining. 

We will now endeavor to explain in a familiar way, the 
manner of defining words by their prefixes and suffixes. — 
And it is simply to speak out the primitive signification, in 
connexion with the separate import of such prefixes 
and suffixes, as constitute the whole word. Take fame, 
which is the primitive, and means fre. Now in, as a pre- 
fix, makes //aflame, and increases the import of the primi- 
tive word, and literally means to put fire in, or to set on 
fire. Again Inflammable — able, means capable of- — or capa- 
ble of being. Hence join capable of being, to the meaning 
of in, and fame, and the whole spoken out is, capable of be- 
ing set on fire. Now let it stand Inflammability, and ability 
means the quality capable of being. This expression, join- 
ed in like manner, to what Inflame, means, it will be, In- 
flammability, the quality capable of being set on fire. Next 
add the second prefix, and let it be uninflammable, and 
speak out the meaning of un, with what Inflammable means, 
and the whole expression will be Uninflammable, not capa- 
ble of being set on fire. Again take Uninflammableness, 
ableness means the property capable of being. Now pro- 
nounce the whole import, and Uninflammableness literally 
signifies, the property not capable of being set on fire. Take 
Delude, signifying to deceive, and it forms 

Deluder. The person who deceives. 

Delusion. The act of deceiving. 

Delusive. Tending to deceive. 

Redeem, signifies to ransom, ir, means not, and able, capa- 
ble of being. Then Irredeemable means not capable of be- 
ing ransomed. 

Join, is a primitive word, and signifies to unite. Let it 
stand thus with its prefixes, 
re un 

ad con re un dis sub mis se inter. Join. 

ad means to, con with, together with, re again, un not, 
dis parting, mis wrong, se separation, sub under, inter be- 
tween. Then, .Adjoin, is joining to. Conjunction, is the 


act of joining with. Reconjunclion, the act of joining with 
again. Unconjoined, not joined with, or together. .Rejoin- 
ed, was joined again. Unjoined, was not joined. Disjoin, 
parting what was joined. /Subjoin, to join under. Misjoin, 
to join wrong. Rejoined, separated. Inter joining, continu- 
ing to join between. 

Pathetic, means like, ox pertaining to tenderness of ex- 

Hope implies expectation, then Hopeful, full of expecta- 
tion. Hopeless, without hope or expectation. 

Blue, is a peculiar color, ish means a quality in some de- 
gree like. Hence Bluish, a quality in some degree like Blue. 
Brownish, a quality in some degree like Brown. 

Prison is a place for confinement. Im prison, to put in 
a place of confinement, imprisonment, the act of putting 
in a place of confinement. 

Mandate, expresses a command. Mandatory, containing 
a command. 

The primitive word, must in all cases be learned, then 
speak out this primitive signification, in connection with 
what all its component parts mean, and you have the pre- 
cise and definite import of the entire word. A little care- 
ful exercise will render it perfectly familiar, and give the 
student, an entire, and ready command of language, and an 
instantaneous mental perception, of the true import of 
words, written or spoken. If he reads or hears Navigate, 
or navigator, navigation, navigable. Renavigate, renaviga- 
ted. Circumnavigate, circumnavigation, the sound can no 
sooner fall on the ear, than the mind will perceive the dif- 
ferent import of each word. The same must unavoidably 
be true, in relation to every derivative word, whose primi- 
tive, prefixes and suffixes are separately known. 


An Entire Example. 

Press a prim. word. To press or urge by 

weight, from Premo, pressum, to 


Press er 
Press ure 
Press ed 
Press ing 

Press ion 
Press ing ly 

Over press 
Counterpress ure 
Com press 
Com press ed 
Com press ion 
Com press ing 
Com press ible 
Com press ure 

Com press ibil ity 

Com press ible ness 

Un com press ed 
Un com press ible 
In com press ibil ity 

Re press 

Re press ed 
Re press ion 
Re press ive 
Re press ing 
Re press er 
Re press ive ly 

Ir re press ible 

De press 
De press ed 
De press ion 
De press or 
De press ible 

the person who presses. 

the result of pressing. 

did press. 

continuing to press, with reference to 
time when. 

the act of pressing. 

in a manner like pressing, or in a 
pressing manner. 

to press too much. 

opposite pressure. 

to press together. 

was pressed together. 

the act of pressing together. 

continuing to press together. 

capable of being pressed together. 

the result of being pressed together, 
or the act, &c. 

the quality capable of being pressed 
together, or the capacity. 

the property or quality capable of be- 
ing pressed together. 

was not pressed together. 

not capable of being pressed together. 

the quality not capable of being press- 
ed together. 

to press again, put down, subdue, or 

was pressed again, or, &c. 

the act of pressing again, &c. 

tending to press again, &c. 

continuing to press again, &c. 

the person who presses again, &c. 

in a manner like pressing again, &c, 
or in a repressive manner. 

not capable of being pressed again, 

to press down, or bear down. 

was pressed down. 

the act of pressing down. 

the person who presses down. 

capable of being pressed down. 
5 # 


De press ing 
Ex press 
Ex press ed 
Ex press ion 
Ex press ible 

Ex press ure 

Ex press ive 
Ex press ing 
Ex press ly 

Ex press ive ly 

Ex press ive ness 

In ex press ible 
In ex press ive 
In ex press ibly 

In ex press ibility 

Un ex press ed 
Un ex press ible 

Un ex press ive 
Im press 
Im press ed 
Im press ion 
Im press ing 
Im press ive 
Im press ure 
Im press ible 
Im press ment 
Impress ive ly 

Im press ive ness 

Im press ibil ity 

Re im press 

continuing to press down. 

to press out, or utter by words 

was uttered by words, or, &c. 

the act of uttering by words, &c. 

capable of being uttered by words, 

the result of having been uttered by 
words, &c, or the utterance. 

tending to utter by words, &c. 

continuing to utter by words. 

like uttering by words, or in an ex- 
press manner. 

in a manner like uttering by words, 
or in an expressive manner. 

the property or quality capable of be- 
ing uttered by words. 

not capable of being uttered by words. 

not tending to utter by words, &c. 

in a manner not capable of being ut- 
tered by words. 

the quality not capable of being ut- 
tered by words. 

was not uttered by words 

not capable of being uttered by 

not tending to express by words. 

to press in, or imprint 

was pressed in, &c. 

the act of pressing in. 

continuing to press in, &c. 

tending to press in. 

the result of pressing in. 

capable of being pressed in. 

the act of pressing in. 

in a manner like pressing in, or in an 
impressive manner. 

the property capable of beng pressed 
in, or capacity, &c. 

the quality capable of being pressed 

to press in again, &c. 


Re im press ed was pressed in again. 

Re im press ion the act of pressing in again 

Re im press ing continuing to press in again. 

Un im press ive not tending to press in. 

Op press to press against, to bear down. 

Op press ed was pressed against, or, &c. 

Op press ion the act of pressing against, &c. 

Op press or the person who presses against, &c. 

Op press ing continuing to press against, &c. 

Op press ive tending to press against, &c. 

Op press ive ly in a manner like pressing against, or 
in an oppressive manner. 

Op press ive ness the quality of pressing against, &c. 

In op press ive not tending to press against, &c. 

Sup press to press under or to bring under. 

Sup press ed was pressed under, &c. 

Sup press ion the act of pressing under. 

Sup press or the person who presses under. 

Sup press ing continuing to press under. 

Sup press ive tending to press under. 

In sup press ion not pressing under. 

In sup press ible not capable of being pressed under. 

Un sup press ed was not pressed under. 


This first exercise, is designed particularly for children 
in common schools, presenting the simplest arrangement in 
forming and defining derivative words. 

All the prefixes and suffixes are printed in Italics, so that 
the scholar may distinguish them by the eye, from the 
primitive word. 

Let the scholar commence by spelling and defining Mix, 
with all its derivatives. Thus, 

Mix, to mingle. 
Mixed, did mingle or was mingled. 
Mixer, the person who mingles. 
Mixing, continuing to mingle (at a certain 
(un means not ) Tin mixed, was not mingled. 


Now spell each of the following words, and define them 
in the same manner as Mix, carefully observing by the ital- 
ics, what parts are added to the primitive word, and what 
meaning they give to it. Let the Teacher put the ques- 
tions distinctly, and observe that the scholar has a correct 
understanding of the process. 























, ZTnwished, 



Now carry out the following words, 
Place, Twist, Tax, Hate, Tune, Part, Roll, Help, Vex. 

less. Means without or destitute of. Fruit, with less 

added, forms Fruit/ess, and means without fruit, 
or destitute of fruit. 

Now what does Formless mean, and house- 
Jew, lifeZes.?, endless, hopeless, (earless grace- 
less, boundless, blameless, faithless, tasteless. 

ful. Means full of, full or abundance. Fruit with 

ful, added, forms fruitful, and means full of 
fruit or abundance of fruit. 

What do the following words mean 1 Hope- 
ful, (earful, graceful, useful, blameful, painful, 
careful, needful, playful, shameful, tuneful, 

Observe how ful, and less, change the 
meaning of the word. Guileful is full of guile ; 
but guileZe.?.? is without guile. 

ish Means in some degree like, or somewhat. 

Green with ish, added, makes greenish, and 
means in some degree like green, or somewhat 

Now what is the meaning of heathenisn, 
wolfish, brownish, brutish, bluish, darkisn, fop- 
pish, soitish, sourish, sweetish, clownisn, apish, 
waggish, knavish. 

ly. Means like, or in a manner. Man, with ly, 

added, makes manly, and means like a man, or 
in a man-like manner. 


Now define, womanZy, kingZy, princeZy, 
swiftZy, speediZy, faintZy, madZy, roughZy, gen- 
ness. Means, the quality of, or the abstract quality 

of, or the state. 

Sweet, with ness, added, forms sweetness, 
and means that quality found in sugar, honey, 
&c, or the * abstract quality of any thing sweet, 
wherever it is found. 

Goodness, means the quality of any thing 
that is good. 

Now define, coldness, softness, greatness, 
weakness, roughness. 

Bloodiness, is the state of being bloody, so 
baldness, hoarseness, comeliness, plainness 

These, with some exceptions, mean the per- 
son who, or the agent which. 

Learn, with er, added, means the person who 
learns. Now explain Instructor, tutor, moral- 
ist, republican, musician, legatee, trustee, auc- 
tioneer, assignee, lioness, peeress, instructress, 
exectutor, executrix, maker, hearer, encomiast, 
heroine, canaaniZe, formalist, logician, chemist, 
philosopher, reader, baroness poetess, protect- 
or, administratrix, actor, 
able ible. Mean capable of, capable of being, or that 

may be. 

Pay, when able is added, makes payaoZe, and 
means capable of being paid, or that may be 

Now define, TeachaoZe, taxaoZe, eataoZe, 
movaoZe, imitaoZe, expressi'6Ze, culpaoZe, quench- 
able, credible, matchaoZe, flexible, blamaoZe, 

Abstract means drawn from, or separated from. 





ion ment. 

These mean the property or quality capa- 
ble of being, that may be ; capacity or state. 

Blame, with ableness added, makes blam- 
ableness, and means the quality that may be 

Flexibility, means the quality that may be 

Now define commendableness, perceptivity 
xesistibility , placability, inflammaWeness, divis- 
ibility, penetrability, destructibility, compre- 
hensibility, combuslibleness, malleability, intel- 

Means partaking of, consisting of, resembling 
or full of. 

Slander, with ous added, forms slanderous, 
and means partaking of, or consisting of slan- 
der. Tumultuous, means full of tumult. 

Now explain invidious, tempestuous, neces- 
sitous, murderous, piteous, plenteous, riotous, 
hazardous, villainous, resinous, ponderous, tim- 
orous, clamorous, mischievous. 

Means having a tendency to, the power of, na- 
ture of, &c. 

Effect with ive added, forms effective and 
means having the power of accomplishing 

Deceptive, means having a tendency to de- 

Now tell the meaning of, restorative, pro- 
ductive, retentive, delusive, expressive, palliat- 
ive, explicative, operative, diffusive, convulsive, 
oppressive, incentive, compulsive, subversive, 
corrosive, preservative. 

Mean the act of, state of being, place or 

Abase with ment added forms abasement, and 
means the act of humbling, or state of being 

Depress, with ion, makes depression, de 


means down, then depression is the act of 
pressing down, or state of being pressed down. 

Now explain concealment, creation, defile- 
ment, desertion, reduction, formation, subject- 
ton, cessation, imprisonment, enforcement, ex- 
citement, congealmen^, privation, discussion, 
ic al. Most generally mean pertaining to, or like. 

Form, with al added, makes forma/, and means 
pertaining to form, or according to form. 

Heroic, is like a hero or pertaining to a hero. 

Now define, national, naturaZ, academicaZ, 
devotionaZ, metaphoric academic, poetic, athe- 
istic, scholastic, deisticaZ, poeticaZ, metaphoric- 
al, academicaZ, electricaZ. 
ize. Signifies, to do, to make, to perform, to give, 

or assimilate. 

Legal, with ize added, forms Legalise, and 
signifies to make lawful. Authorize to give au- 
thority to. 

Now explain, equalize, brutalize civilize, mor- 
alize, pulverize, sterilize, realize, humanize, 
methodize, fertilize. 
ism. Means principles, state, or what is peculiar to. 

Method, with ism added, forms methodism, 
and means the principles, or doctrines of Meth- 

Anglicism, is what is peculiar to the English 

Naturalism, is the mere state of nature. 

What is Jesuitism, Catholicism, republican- 
ism, Vandalism, presbyterianism, puritanism, 
sectarianism, federalism, patriotism, gallicism, 
en fy. Signify to make, or made of. 

Hard with en, forming harden means to make 
hard, or more hard. Wooden, means made of 

Happy, (y changed to i, and^y added,) makes 
happi/y, and means to make happy. 

Now define deepen, lighten, slacken, widen, 
weaken, flaxen, woolen, hempen, silken, earthen, 


waxen, beechen, Glori/y, forti/y, sancti/y, Dei/y, 
rati/y, modi/y, puri/y, beati/y, justi/y, stupe/y, 
falsi/y, clari/y, fructify, moli/y. 
ity cy ty. Mean the state, condition or state of. 

Obdurate, makes obduracy, the state of being 
hard of heart, or unfeeling. Humility, the 
state of being humble. 

Now what is supremacy, delicacy, intricacy, 
solidly, fertility, stupidly, hostility, tranquility, 
hood. Means the state of, or office. 

Child, with hood added, means the state of a 

Priest/iooc?, is the office of a priest. 

What is boyhood, manhood, knighthood, hard- 
ship. Means state or office. What is professor- 

ship, consulship, partnership, relations/iip, legis- 
ance ancy > Mean the state, condition, act of, or thing. 
ence ency. $ ing, will aid in giving the meaning. 

Depend, means to hang down, (literally) and 
ence added, forms dependence, and means the 
state of hanging- down from some supporter. 

Performance, is the act of doing something 
or the thing done. 

Now define ignorance, allowance, occupancy, 
ascendency, deficiency, coincidence, concurrence, 
confluence, competence, persistence, clemency, 
despondency, delinquency, solvency, reliance. 
ant ent. Either mean a person, or express acting or 

doing, in some sense like words ending with 

Preside, forms president, the person presid- 

Defendant, is a person. Refulgent, is shin- 

What is Assailant, accountant, combatant, 
disputant, agent, student, adherent, triumphant, 
vigilant, absorbent, component, abstinent, ap- 



Second Exercise. 

Suffixes, subjoined to different words, in classes, as an 
exercise for children, where repetition will strengthen the 
memory and render the mode of defining familiar. To be 
often repeated, 
ful. Full of, full, an abundance. 

fully. In a manner full of, or in a manner. 

fullness. The quality of being full of, or state, 

less. Without, or destitute of. 

lessly. In a manner without, or in a manner. 

lessness. The quality or state of being without. 

Now apply the above definitions to the following words, 
and observe the commas. 

Faith ful,ly,ness less,ly,ness. Rule 4. 

Health ful,ly,ness less,ly,ness. 

Pity ful,ly,ness less,ly,ness. Rule 2. y changed to i. 

Hope ful,ly,ne°.s less,ly,ness. 

Mercy ful,ly,ness less,ly,ness. Rule 2. y changed to i 

Art ful,ly,ness less,ly,ness. 

Care ful,ly,ness less,ly,ness. 

Need ful,ly,ness less,ly,ness. 

Fear ful,ly,ness les3,ly,ness. 

Shame ful,ly,ness less,ly,ness. 

Respect ful,ly,ness less,ly,ness. 
ish. In some degree like, or somewhat. 

• , , In a manner some degree like, or in a 

manner somewhat like, 
ishness. The quality in some degree like. 

Define the primitive, then join each suffix, and define the 

Fool ish,ly,ness. Clown ish,ly,ness. 

Heathen ish,ly,ness. Ape ish,ly,ness. 

Slave ish,ly,ness, Sot tish,ly,ness. 

Knave ish,ly,ness. Brine ishmess. 

Brute ish,ly,ness. Slut tish,ly,ness. 

Child ish,ly,ness. White ish,ness. 




Continuing to, (Referring to the time 

In a manner, (repeat the word in the 

ingness. The quality of being. 


Loving/y, in a (loving) man- Lastingree^, the quality of 

ner. being durable. 

Grieve ing,ly. Admire ing,ly. Doubt ing,ly. 

Frown ing,ly. Despair ing,ly. Fawn 

Surprise ing,ly. Enchant Agonize ing,ly. 

Loathe ing,ly. Pine Love ing,ly. 

Charm ing,ly. Despair ing,ly. Last ing,ly. 

ic > 

, > Pertaining to, relating to, like. 

ical. (The same as above.) 

. ,, In a manner pertaining to, or in a 

y* manner. 

Deist ic,al„ly. Democrat ic,al„ly. Method ic,al„ly. 

Drama tic,al„ly. Poet ic,al„ly. Metaphor ic,al„ly. 

Druid ic,al„ly. Angel ic,al„ly. Alphabet ic,al„ly. 

Mechanic al ,ly. Atheist ic,al,,ly. Grammat ic,al„ly. 

ably ) In a manner that may be, or in a- 
ibly. ) manner. 

.. , I The property or quality that may be, &c. 

Move able,ness ably. Corrupt able,ness ably. 

Change able,ness ably. Demonstrate ble,ness bly. 

Censure able,ness ably. Perceptible ibly ( ibility. 

Charge able,ness ably. Honor able,ness ably. 

Adore able,ness ably. Blame able.ness ably. 

Tame able,ness. Commend able,ness ably. 

ive. Tending to, the power of, or the nature of. 

, In a manner tending to, or in a man- 

lvely * ner. 

. The quality tending to, or having the pow- 

er of. 

> That may be, &c. 


Diffuse ive,ly,ness. Oppress ive,ly,ness. 

Attract ive,ly,ness. Coerce ive,ly. 

Destructive ly ness. Cohesive ly ness. 

Compulsive ly ness. Abusive ly ness. 

ous. Partaking of, like, full of. 

, In a manner partaking of, like, or, in a 

^' manner. 

ousness. The quality partaking of, like, or state. 

Danger ous,ly,ness. Melody ous,ly,ness. 

Injury ous,ly,ness. Rule 2. Murder 
Efficacy ous,ly,ness. Slander ous,ly,ness. 

Perfidy ous,ly,ness. Plenty ous,ly,ness. Rule 2. 

Grieve ous,ly,ness. Malicious ly ness. 

Glory ous,ly,ness. Ruin ous,ly,ness. 

To do, to make like, to perform, or assim- 
lze - ilate. 

ized. Did make, &c, or was. 

izing. Continuing to make, &c. 

ization. The act of making, &c. 

Real ize,ed,ing,ation. Pulverize ed ing ation. 

Civil ize,ed,ing,ation. Equalize ed ing ation. 

Author ize,ed,ing,ation. Colonize ed ing ation. 

Moral ize,ed,ing,ation. Epitomize ed ing ation. 

Human ize,ed,ing,ation. Naturalize ed ing ation. 

Organ ize,ed,ing,ation. Modern ize,ed,ing,ation. 

ment. The act of, the state of being, or thing. 

Confine ment. Attain ment. 

Advance ment. Acquire ment. 

Enlarge ment. Enroll ment. 

Abase ment. Infringe ment. 

Retire ment. Allot ment. 

Excite ment. Prefer ment. 

Atone ment. Elope ment. 

To, as Desolate to destroy, or the quality 
ate. of 

ated. Did or was. 

ation. The act of, &c. 

Continuing to, (with reference to time 
& when.) 

atory. Containing, the nature of, or tending to. 



Accelerate ed ing ion ory. Narrate ed ing ion ory. 
Obligate ed ing ion ory. Expostulate ed ing ion ory. 

Indicate ed ing ion ory. Dilate ed ing ion ory. 

(The judicious use of) ing, or the person. 
ent, in many words, has a very simi- 
ilar import to a present Participle. 

/ I In a manner &c, or in a manner. 

ently. y ' 

Indulge ent, is yields'?* g. 
Indulgently in a yielding manner. 
Recumbenf, leaning, reclining. 
Defendant, the person who defends. 
Accordant, agreeing to or with. 
Confide?*/;, trustmo- with. 

Depend ent. Differ ent. Emerge ent. 

Concur rent. Reside ent. Cohere ent. 

Assist ant. Repent ant. Absorb ent. 

-, , I That may be, &c. 

h'lt'v \ ^e P ro P ert y or quality that maybe, &c. 

Penetrate ble bility. Rule 8. Digest ible ibility. 

Change able ability. Culpa t ble <bility. Rule. 3 

Commute able ability. Fallible ^ility. 

Compress ible ibility. Credible 4 bility. 

Resist ible ibility. Proba 4 blo <bility. 

Defense ible ibility. Possible ( bility. 

Access ible ibility. Combustible t bility. 

Accept able ability. Invincible ability. 

Contract ible ibility. Admissible <bility. 

ance ancy ) The state, condition, or result. Some- 
ence ency. y times the act of, or thing. 

Accord ance. Cohere ence ency. 

Appear ance. Differ ence. 

Disturb ance. Depend ence ency. 

Conform ance. Confide ence. 

Achieve ance. Revere ence. 

Affirm ance. Attend ance. 

Defy ance- Concur rence rency 





Did or was. 

In a mannner. (Repeat the word 

where the blank is.) 
The quality of being, or state, &c. 


Guarded/y, in a (guarded) Conceited/less, the state of 
manner. being conceited. 

In a manner learned, or in (a learned) 


Remove ed,ness. 
Impoverish ed,ly,ness. 
Invert ed,ly. 
Content ed,ly,ness. 
Convex ed,ly. 
Refine ed,ly,ness. 
Amaze ed,ly,ness. 

al, is a very common suffix after ic. And after al, we 
frequently have, ize ism ist ly ity, or some of them. De- 
fine the followinsf. 

Interrupt ed,ly. 
Reserve ed,ly. 
Guard ed,ly,ness. 
Resolve ed,ly,ness. 
Confuse ed,ly,ness. 
Deform ed,ly,ness. 
Conceit ed,ly,ness. 

Natural ism ist ly ize. 
Calvin ism ist,ic„al. 
Magic al,ly. 
Academic al,ly. 
Hypocrit ic,al„ly. 

Like, in a manner. 

The quality like, or state. 

Love ly,ness. 
Rule 2. God ly,ness. 

Neighbor ly.ness. 
Lone ly,ness. 
Coward ly,ness. 

ship. The office of, state of, or territory. 

Professor ship. Consul ship. 

Legislate or.ship. Probation ship. 

Part ner,ship. Chancellor ship. 

Relation ship. Town ship. 


Democrat ic,al„ly. 
Domestic al,ly 
Partial ity ist ly ize. 
Pedant ic,al„ly. 
Atheist ic,al„ly. 


Friend ly,ness 
Ghost ly,ness. 
Gentleman ly,ness 
Man ly,ness. 
Modest ly. 


Words ending in le are commonly suffixed with ed er 

ing, or some of them, as, 

Muffle ed er ing. Tipple ed er ing. 

Fable ed er ing. Tackle ed ing. 

Swindle ed er ing. Mantle ed er ing. 

Tattle er ing. Ramble ed er ing. 

Scuffle ed er ing. Scribble ed er ing. 

Grumble ed er ing. Babble er ing. 









Clarify ed er ing cation. 

Simplify ed ing cation. 

Gratify ed er ing cation. 

Modify ed er ing cation. 

Salify ed ing cation. 

Sanctify ed er ing cation 

Notify ed ing cation. 

Testify ed er ing cation. 



To make. 

Did or was. Rule 2. 

The person or thing. 

Continuing to, &c. 

The act of, &c. Rule 7. 

To make, did or more. 

Was made, &c. 

Continuing to, &c. 

The person, or thing, &c. 

Sweet en,ed,er,ing. 
Mad den,ed,ing. 
Fresh en,ed. 
Like en,ed,in£f. 
Deep en,ed,ing. 
Hard en,ed,ing,er. 
Fat tcn,ed,ing,er 
White en,ed,ing,er. 
Possessing a degree of, or somewhat. 
In a manner possessing a degree of, or in 

a manner. 

The quality possessing a degree of, or 

Trouble some,ly,ness. Loathe some,ly,ness. 

Lone some,ly,ness. Fulsome ly ness. 

Gladsome,ly,ness. Cumber some,ly,ness. 

Delight some,ly,ness. Meddle some,ness. 

Irk some,ly,ness. Humor some,ly. 

There are but few worda in ion, to which additional suf- 
fixes are united, and those commonly of the following char- 

Nation al,ly,ity,ize,ness. Question er ary ist less able. 

Portion ed er ing ist. Caution ed er ing ary. 


Passion less ary ate,ly. Notion al,ly,ity ist. 

Station al ary er. Faction ary ist. 

Action able ably ary. Pension ed er ing ary. 

Pertaining to, the nature of, power of, or 
^ place where, 

orily. In a manner pertaining to, or the nature of. 

oriness. The quality pertaining to, &c. 

Contradict ory,ly,ness. Observe atory. 

Mandate ory. 
Consola tory. 
Prohibit ory. 


Exculpate ory. 
Deposit ory. 
Expostulate ory. 
The principles of, the state of, or pecu- 
liar to. 

Pagan ism. Federal ism. Method ism. 

Heathen ism. Republican ism. Tory ism. 

Puritan ism. Patriot ism. Anglicism. 

ry \ 

ary > Relating to, pertaining to. 

lar. ) 

Aliment ary. MuscuZar. TituZar. 

Testament ary. Consular. Insular. 

Element ary. Lunar. Jugular. 

Supplement ary. Secular. Tubular. 

Imagine ary. Globular. Circular. 

Peasant ry. Mimic ry. Image ry. 


These imply the actual state, or real con- 
dition ; or the quality converted into 
a substance, and may be rendered the 
state, condition, or quality. 
Stupid, is a quality, stupidly, is a state. 

Liberal ity. Prosper ity. Delicate cy.* 

Equal ity. Fragil ity. Intricate cy. 

Vital ity. Ductile ity. Obstinate cy. 

Moral ity. Stupid ity. Accurate cy. 

Mortal ity. Local ity. Obstinate cy. 

Brutal ity. Hostile ity. Legitimate cy. 

• te is dropped before cy, Rule 8. 



Third Exercise. 

An exercise in carrying trie primitive through its de- 
rivative forms. 

Communicate, To impart. 

Compare, To liken things. 

Compassion, Pity. 
Defense, A protection. 
Deject, To cast down. 
Expect, To wait for. 

Force, To compel. 

Govern, To rule over. 

Honor, To reverence. 

Indicate, To point out. 
Instruct, To teach. 

Joy, Mirth. 

Know, To understand. 
Lax, Loose. 

Method, A way or manner. 
Narrate, To tell or rehearse 
Obstruct, To block up. 
r. , Pertaining to the 
P °P ul ' ar ' people. 

Quarrel, To contend. 
Recognize, To recollect. 
Remove, To change place. 
Separate, To part. 

Sense, Feeling, Reason. 

Thought, Meditation. 

ed ing ion ive,ness ory able,- 

ness bility. 
ed er ing ison ative,ly able 

ary ate,ly,ness able, 
ed less,ness ive,ly ible. 
ed,ly,ness ing ion ly ory. 
er ing ant ance ancy able 

ation ative. 
ed,ly,ness fuljy less ible,ness 

ibly ing. 
ed ing or ess ant ance able 

ed er ing less able,ness ably 

ed ing ion ive,ly or ory. 
ed ing ion ive,ly,ness or ress 

ful,ly,ness less,ly,ness ous,ly 

er ing,ly able. 

ly ness ity ation ative,ness. 
ic,al„ly ist,ic„al ism ize. 
ed ing ion ive,ly or ory able, 
ed er ing ion ive. 
ly ity ize,ed,ing 4 ate,ed,ing,ion- 

t ous,ly,ness. 
er ing ous some,ly,ness. 
ed ing or ee ance able. 
ed,ness er ing al able ability, 
ed ing ly ion ness ist or ory 

ble,ness bility. 
ful less,ly,ness ation ible,ness 

ibility itivedy. 
ful,ly,ness less,ly,ness. 


Traduce, To vilify. ed er ing,lyment ent ible tion 

Use, To occupy, custom. ed ful,ly,ness less,ly,ness ance 

er age,er able ual,ly,ness. 
Utter, To speak. ed er ing ance able. 

Vapor, Moisture, elastic fluid. ate,ion able ability ed ize,ed,- 

ing,ation ous,ly,ness. 
Venerate, To reverence. ed ing ion or ble,ness bly 

Wake, Not to sleep. ful,ly,ness er ing en,er,ing,ed. 

Yield, To give up. ed er ing,ly,ness ance able,- 

Yellow, A color. ness ish,ness. 

Zeal, Engagedness. less ous,ly,ness ot,ic„al. 

Zone, A girdle. ed less nar. 

Accuse, To blame. ed er ing ant able ation 

ative,ly atory. 
Affirm, To assert positively, ed er ing able ably ant ance 

ation ative,ly. 

t. An assemblage of ) ous,ly,ness ful,ly,ness less 

*' graces. $ fy,er,ing. 

r, £. An act of kindness. ) ,. 
Benefit, Tq do good £ ed ing. 

Allow, To grant. ed er ing ance able,ness ably. 

Manner of discovering Latin Roots. 

When the English word is derived from a Latin deri- 
vative, the prefix to the Latin root, is italicised, or the root 
is given in addition. If the English word is from a Latin 
noun, participle or supine, of regular formation, nothing 
more is commonly necessary than to italicise the prefix, 
and thus show the primitive ; which is usually done in the 
following tables : — 

For example, the English word Inscribe, is from the 
Latin Znscribo, where in being italicised, leaves scribo un- 
italicised as the root. So obstruct, is from ofcstructum, 
where ob is likewise italicised, leaving structum, as the 
regular supine from struo, its root. In this manner Latin 
primitives and derivatives may generally be distinguished. 

As this work is specially designed to aid English 
scholars, who have no knowledge of the classics, and con- 


sequently could not trace out very remote derivations, it 
was thought advisable for their benefit, to accommodate the 
arrangement in this respect, to their understandings, by- 
giving those words whose signification is greatly expanded, 
under different heads, or repeating the root, in connection 
with such prefixes, as in each case, would best correspond 
with the several primitive meanings. 

For example ; An,nounce, signifies, to publish or declare 
to, and in natural connection is pronounce. But Renounce, 
means to disown, or reject, and in accordance with this, is 
denounce ; yet both words have the same root. Also 
instruct, to teach, Construe to translate, structure, a build- 
ing, obstruct, to block up, and destroy to pull down, are 
from the same root, struo to build. All these words have 
corresponding prefixes, and when relatively arranged the 
whole becomes perfectly intelligible to the English 

The scholar must remember that some of the prefixes, 
and especially un, rarely combine with the primitive word 
till it has assumed some of its derivative forms ; as Faith 
cannot be wnfaith, but unfaithful. 

A little observation of the tables where all the suffixes 
are carried out with the prefixes, will afford the best guide 
on this point, re and un, are prefixed to adjectives and 
participles almost at pleasure ; and are not always inserted 
in this work where they might be used with propriety. 
all, high and self, like prefixes, are extensively used in com- 
position as ^4/Z-amazed, High-minded, <SeZ/"-sufficient, &c. 


Fourth Exercise. 

All the prefixes used in this exercise mean as follows : — 

un Means not or without, E/nalarmed, not 

alarmed, or it means undoing, as un- 

braid, to separate the threads. 

mis. Means wrong, as Misbehave, to behave 

sub. under or beneath. -Swoastral, under the 

stars or beneath the stars. 


mi in. 


il non. 










one half. /Semi-diameter, half the diameter, 
hemisphere, Demi-woU. 

not, the want of, or without. Tnopulent, not 
wealthy, or without wealth. Impro- 
per, not proper. 

not. //legal not legal, non-emphatic, not 

between. Interlink, to link between. 

before. Ante-meridian, before noon. 

after. Postmeridian, after noon. 

in connection with. Co-partner, a partner 
in connection with. 

again or back. Re-echo, to echo back. 
Re-enpy, to enjoy again. 

going beyond. OwMtnave, going beyond 
in knavery. 

One's owti person. Self-neglect, neglect 
ing one's self. 

too much. Over-noisy, too much noise. 

in, or to make. En-circle, to circle in. 

not or separating from. Dishonest, not 
honest. Dis-memher, to separate a 

Now let children spell, form and define, all the words in 
this first exercise, till the whole process has become per- 
fectly familiar. This will not only perfect them in spelling, 
and defining the words in this Section, but will give them 
a general view of the radical principles, in the formation 
of all derivative words, not merely in this book, but in the 
whole language, and by proper mental discipline, continued 
in this manner, will, unavoidably ensure clearness of 
thought, and perspicuity of expression for life. 


/. stands for French— sax. for Saxon— norm. Norman— gr. Greek— 
£.' German — d. Dutch— ir. Irish— it. Italian— sp. Spanish— w. Welch— 
dan. Danish— gotk. Gothic. The Latin words are given when the 
English word is directly or more remotely derived from Latin. When 
two or more Latin words are given, it will be plainly perceivable from 
which one each of the English derivatives are formed. 


tin. Abash. To make the spirits to fall, to make ashamed, 

or confused, ed ing ment. un ed. 
re. Accost, f. To speak to first, to address face to face, 

to approach, ed ing able, 
un. Alarm, f. An out cry, giving notice of danger, to 

rouse or disturb with fear, ed is,t. 

un ed. 
un. Answer, sax. To speak in return, to be equivalent 

or suitable to, to reply. It has many senses. 

ed er ing able,ness ably, un ed able,ness ably. 
un. Argue, Arguo. To reason, debate or dispute, to 

to prove or evince, ed er ing ment,al,able,- 

ation,ative„ly. un ed. Rule 4. 
un. Arrest, f. To take a person with a warrant, to stop 

or hinder, ed er ing ment ation or. un ed. 
sub. Astral, gr. Pertaining to the stars, sub. 
un. Attire, norm. To dress, ornamental clothes, ed er 

ing. un ed. 
un. Bashful. Having a down cast look, modest, very 

modest, ly ness. un. 
mis. Behave, gr. To act, to conduct well or ill. ed ing 

ior. mis ed ior. 
un. Betray, sax. To deliver into the hands of another 

by treachery, to disclose, mislead or deceive. 

ed er ing. un ed. Rule 2. 
un. Blame, f. To censure or rind fault with, a crime or 

fault, ed er ing ful less,ly,ness able, ness 

ably, un ed ablemess ably. 
un. Blend, sax. To mix or mingle together, ed er ing. 

un ed. 
un. Bless, sax. To express a wish or desire to make 

happy, to consecrate or set apart, er ing 

ed,ly,ness. un. 
un. Blunt, sax. Having a thick edge or point, abrupt, 

wanting civility, ed ing ly ness. un ed. 
un. Bribe, ir. A reward bestowed or offered, to pervert 

judgment, that which seduces. er,y. un ed 

un. Brother, sax. A human male born of the same 

parents, any one closely united, ly less 

hood, un ly. 


un. Chastise, f. To punish, to correct, ed er ing able 
merit, un ed. Castigo, to beat. 

en. Circle, Circulus. A curve line bending round till 
both ends meet, ed er ing. en ed ing. 

over. Clamor, Clamor. A great out cry or noise. ous,ly,- 
ness. over ous. 

un. Clasp, ir. A hook for fastening, to close in the hand, 
ed er ing. un ing. 

un. Clip, sax. To cut off with shears or scissors, to cur- 
tail, to diminish, ped per ping, un ped. 
Rule 5. 

un. Coil, f. To gather as a line or cord into a circular 
form, ed ing. un ed. 

un. Comely, sax. Becoming, suitable, handsome, grace- 
ful, decent, ness. un ness. Rule 2. 

un. Concern, f. To relate or belong to, to interest or 
disturb, anxiety. ed,ly ing ment. un ed,ly,- 
ness. Cerno, to see. 

un. Contemn, Contemno. To dispise, slight or reject 
with disdain, ed er ing. un ed. 

dis. Continue, Co?itinuo. To remain in any place, to 
last or endure, to extend. ed,ly er ing ity 
ous al,ly,ness ance ation ator ative. dis 
ed er ing ous ity ance ation. Teneo, to 

un. Curb, f. Restraint, check, hinderance, a frame round 
the mouth of a well, to restrain, ed ing. 
un ed. 

semi. Deist, Deus. One who believes in the existence of 
a God, but denies a revelation. ic,al. semi 
ical. De ( ity 4 ism. 

un. Defy, f. To dare to combat or strife, to challenge, 
ance atory er. un ed. 

un. Defend. } ZMendo. To drive back or repel, to vin- 

> dicate, to fortify. 

self. Defense. ) Defensum. A .security against violence 

or injury ed er ing ant able, un ed. ed ible 

ive,ly less,ness ative. self. 
un. Delight, f. and Delector. A high degree of pleasure, 

to affect with pleasure, ed er ful,ly,ness less 

some,ly,ne6s. un ed ful. 


un. Deny, f. To contradict, refuse, reject, disown, not 

to yield, er al able, un able ably. 
un. Deserve, Deservio. To merit, to be worthy of either 

good or evil. ed,ly ing,ly er. un ed,ly,ness 

ing,ly. Servus, a slave. 
un. Desire, f. An emotion of the mind for the attain- 
ment of some object, love, appetite, ed er 

ing ous,ly,ness able,ness. un able. 
un. Despise. To contemn, scorn or disdain, to have the 

lowest opinion of. ed,ness ing,ly er al able. 

un ed. De-Specio, to look down. 
over. Difficult, Di/ficilis. Hard to be made or done, at- 
tended with difficulty, not easily performed. 

y. over. Facilis, easy. 
un. Divulge, Divulgo. To make public, to disclose or 

tell, ed er ing ation. un ed. Vulgus, the 

common people. 
re. Double, f. To fold, twice the sum, to increase twice as 

much, y ed er ing ness. reeding. Duo, two. 
un. Doubt, f. To waver in opinion, to hesitate, to 

question or fear, ed er ing,ly ful,ly,ness 

less,ly. un ed,ly ing. Dubitus, doubtful. 
over. Earnest, sax. Eager to obtain, zealous, serious, first 

fruits, a reality, ness ly. over. 
re. Echo, Echo. Sound reflected from a solid body, to 

resound, ed ing. re ed ing. 
un. Elate, JSlatus. Raised, elevated in mind, proud, 

haughty. ed,ly ing or ion. un ed. Fero, 

latum, to carry, or bear. 
un. Embellish, f. To adorn, beautify or decorate, to 

to make elegant, ed er ing ment. un ed. 
un. Embroider, f. To border with ornamental needle 

work, ed er ing y. un ed. 
Emanate, iiinano. To issue from a source, to flow 

from, ing ion ive. Mano, to flow like drops. 
non. Emphases, \ gr. A particular stress of voice given 
> to certain words. 

Emphatic. ) ( ize al,ly. non al. 
Emulate, Aemulor. To strive to equal or excel, to 

vie with, to rival, ed ing ion ive or ress. 

Aemulus, vying with 


un. Endow, norm. To furnish with a portion of goods 
or estate, to enrich or settle on, to indue, 
ed er ing ment. un ed. 

nn. Entertain, f. To receive and treat with hospi- 
tality, to lodge, to please and amuse, ed 
er ing,ly ment. un ed ing,ness. Teneo, to 

un. Entrance, f. To put in a trance, to withdraw the 
soul, enraptured, ed ing. dis ed ing. 

un. Escort, f. A guard, a body of armed men protecting 
something, ed ing. un ed. 

un. Espy, f. To see at a distance, to discovor. un ed. 
Specio, to look. 

co. Eternal, Aeternus. Without beginning or end, im- 
mortal, ist ize ly. Etern ity ify ize,ed,ing. 
co al. 

Un. Exempt, f. To be free or permit to be free from any 
charge or burden, to free by privilege, ed 
ing ion. un ed. Emo, to buy. 

un Expect, £a-specto expectatum. To wait for, to look 
for either good or evil, er ing ant ancy ance 
able ation. un ed,ly,ness. Specio, to see or 
Expunge, JSxpungo. To blot out as with a pen, to 
efface or erase, ed ing. Pungo, to prick or 

un. Fade, f. To lose color, to decay, lose strength, to 
vanish, ed ing,ness. un ed ing,ness. 

un. Fair, sax. Clear from spots, beautiful, frank, honest, 
plain, ly ness. un ly ness. 

un. Faith, w. Belief, assent of the mind, trust, con- 
fidence. ful,ly,ness less,ness. un ful,ly,- 
ness. Fides, faith. 

un. Familiar, Familians. Pertaining to a family, do- 
mestic, easy in conversation, intimate, ity 
ize,ed,ing ly. un ity. Familia, a family. 

en. Feeble, sp. Weak, infirm, sickly, not loud, wanting 
force, ness y. en ing ment. 

semi. Fluid, Fluidus. Any substance whose parts move 
easily like water, ity ness. semi. Fluo, 
to flow. 


un. Forbear, sax. To stop, cease, delay, to abstain from, 

to omit, ance er ing. un ing. 
un. Forfeit, f. To lose by some fault, offense, or crime. 

ed er ing ure able, un ed. 
re. Fund, f. Stock or capital, money, income, abund 

ance. re ed ing. 
un. Furl, f. To draw up, to contract as sails, ed ing. 

un ed. 
un. Generous, Generosiis. Being of honourable birth, 

noble, liberal, bountiful, ly ness. un ly. 

Genus from Gigno. 
un. Genteel, f. Polite, well bred, easy in manners and 

behavior, ly ness. un ly. Genus, a race 

or kind. 
un. Gentle, Genus. Well born, mild, tame, meek, not 

violent. man,ly ness. un man,ly ness. 
un. Grant, norm. To admit as true what is not proved, 

to allow, to yield, give or concede, ed or ee 

ing able, un ed. 
un. Greet, sax. To address with expressions of kind 

wishes, to salute, ed er ing. Gratus, favor. 
in. Gratitude, Gratitudo. An emotion of the heart to- 
wards a benefactor, excited by a favor. 

Gratus, a favor, grateful. 
un. Hazard, f. Chance, accident, danger, peril, to ex- 
pose to chance, ed er ing ous,ly able. 

un ed. 
un. Health, from heal. That state in which all the parts 

of a living body are sound. ful,ly,ness 

y,ness,ly less, un ful,ness y,ness,ly. 
un. Heed, sax. To mind, to regard with care, caution, 

care, ed ful,ly,ness less,ly,ness. un y ed 

ing ful. 
un. Hesitate, Haesito. To stop or pause, to be in doubt 

or suspense, to stammer. ing,ly ion t ant 

t ancy. un ing,ly. Haereo, to stick. 
dis. Honest, f. and Honor. Upright, just, fair in dealing, 

frank, sincere, ly y. dis ly y. 
un. Hope, sax. A desire of some good accompanied 

with some expectation. To desire, ed ful,- 

ly,ness less,ly,ness ing,ly. un ed ful. 


on. Infest, Infesto. To trouble greatly, to disturb, annoy 

or harass, ed er ing ation. un ed. 
Infringe, /nfringo. To break as a contract, to violate 

or transgress, ed er ing ment. Frango, to 

un. Injure, f. To hurt or wound, to damage, to make 

worse, ed er ing y,ous„ly„ness. un ed. 

Jus, right or legal. 
self. Indulge, Tradulgeo. To permit to be, to suffer, not to 

check, ed er ing ence ency entjy. self 

un. Insult, /nsultus. The act of leaping on, gross abuse 

offered to another, insolence, ed er ing,ly 

ation. un ed. Salio, to leap. 
un. Interrupt, Riiptus, a breaking, Inter, between. To 

stop or hinder by breaking in upon, to im- 
pede motion. ed,ly er ing ion. un ed,ly. 

Rumpo, to break. 
Invent, f. /nvenio. To find out something new, to 

devise or contrive, ed er ing ion ive or. 
re. Iterate, Itero. To repeat, to utter or do a second 

time, ed ing ion ive. un ed. Iterum, again. 
over. Jealous, f. Fearing rivalship. y ly ness. over. 
co. Jur 4 or, Jurator. One who serves on a jury. 4 ist. co 

fix. Jus. legal. 
out. Knave, sax. Originally a boy, or servant, now used 

for a false, deceitful, dishonest person, ry 

ish,ly,ness. out. 
un. Lament, Lainentor. To mourn or grieve, to be- 
wail, to regret, ed er ing able ably ation. 

un ed. 
mis. Lead, sax. To guide by the hand, to conduct, or go 

before, to induce, er ing. mis er ing. 
un. Learn, sax. To gain knowledge of, to acquire skill, 

to receive intelligence. ed,ly,ness ing er 

un ed,ly. 
il. Legible, Legibilis. That may be read, that may be 

discovered. t bly ness ( bility. z7 t ble t bility 

4 bly. Lego, to read or choose. 
inter. Link, dan. A single ring of a chain, to unite, ed 

ing. inter. 


re. Loan, sax. The act of lending, that which is lent. 

ed ing. re ed ing. 
un. Maim, f. To deprive of the use of a limb, to injure, 

cripple, or disable, ing ed,ness. un ed. 
un. Mean, sax. Wanting dignity, base. Also the mid- 
dle point; also to have in mind or intend. 

ing ly ness. un ing. 
dis. Member, Membrum. A limb of animal bodies, a 

clause or part of a discourse, an individual 

of community, ed ship, dis ed ing ment. 
ante. Meridian, f. At mid-day, a circle in the heavens. 

t onal,ly,ity. ante. 
re. Mold, sax. 1. Soft earth. 2. To shape. 3. To 

cover with mold, ed ing able y,ness er,ing. 

un ed. 
un. Molest, f. To trouble, disturb or render uneasy, ed 

er ing ful ation. un ed. 
un. Muffle, d. To cover from the weather, to blindfold. 

ed er ing. un. 
self. Murder, sax. To kill a human being unlawfully, ed 

er ess ing ous,ly. un ed. 
re. Murmur, Murmur. A low sound, to complain, to 

grumble, er ing,ly ous. un ed ing. 
Need, sax. Want, necessity, a state that requires 

aid or relief, ed er ful,ly ing y,ly,ness less,- 

self. Neglect, JVegdectus. To omit by carelessness or de- 
sign, to postpone, ed er ful,ly ing,ly ion 

ive. self. iVec-lectus, not choosing. 
un. Neighbor. An inhabitant of the same vicinity, ly,- 

ness ing ship hood, un ly. 
un. Notice, Notitia. Observation by any of the senses, 

civility, respect, remark, ed ing. un ed. 

Nosco, to know. 
post. Nuptial, Nuptialis. Pertaining to marriage, post. 

Nubo, to marry. 
un. Nurture, f. To feed, nourish, bring up or educate. 

Food or diet, ed ing. un ed. Nutrio, to 

in. Opul ( ent, Opulentus. Wealthy, rich, affluent, ly 
ence. in ,ent. 


un. Pain, sax. An uneasy sensation, labor, toil, to dis- 
quiet. ful,ly,ness ed. un ed ful. Paena, 

im. Palpable, f. Perceptible by the touch, coarse, plain, 
obvious, ness 4 bly 4 bility. im ,bility. Palpo, 
to touch or feel. 

un. Pardon, f. To forgive an offence, to remit a penalty, 
forgiveness, ed er ing ably able,ness. un 
ed ing able ably. 

im. Permanent, Permanens. Durable, lasting, remain- 
ing unchanged. c ence ( ency ly. im. Maneo, 
to abide. 
Pierce, f. To penetrate, to thrust a way into, to 
enter or effect, ed er ing,ly,ness able. 

im. Pious, Pius. Godly, religious, due respect for 
parents, ly. im ly ness. 

un. Pity, f. The feeling excited in one person by the 
distress of another, sympathy, having tender 
feelings. ful,ly,ness ed able,ness,- 
ness. un ed ful,ly ing. 

inter. Pledge, f. Something put in pawn, a surety, to de- 
posit, ed er ee ing. inter. 

un. Poet, f. and Poeta. The author of a poem, one 
skilled in poetry, ess ize ic,al„ly ress ry. 
un ic,al,,ly. 

un. Pollute, Polluo. To defile or make unclean, to pro- 
fane or violate. ed,ly,ness er ing ion. un ed. 

un. Prince, f. A sovereign, the ruler of a nation, son of 
a king, dom like ly,ness ess. un ly. 

im. Proba 4 ble, Probabilis. Likely, having more evidence 
than the contrary, that may be. ,bly ( bility. 
im <bly t bility. Probo, to prove, from probus, 

un. Profit, f. Any gain or pecuniary advantage, to im- 
prove, ed ing less able,ness ably, un ed 
able,ness ably. 

im. Proper, Proprius. Particularly suited to, fit, correct, 
just, one's own. lyness. im ly. Prope, near. 

un. Provoke, Provoco. To make angry, to offend, to call 
into action, ed er ing,ly able, un ed ing. 
Voco, to call. 


un. Prune. To lop off superfluous branches, to dress or 

trim, ed er ing. un ed. 
Public, Publicus. Pertaining to a nation, common, 

open to common use, the general body of a 

nation, ly ity ness. 
un. Punish, Punio. To affect with pain, to chastise, to 

pain, ed er ing ment able,ness. un ed ing. 

Poena, punishment, pain. 
un. Quench, sax. To extinguish, to put out, to destroy. 

ed er ing less ably, un ed able,ness 

un. Quell, sax. To curb or subdue, to quiet, to allay, to 

restore to peace, ed er ing. un ed. 
un. Question, f. and quaestio. The act of asking, inquiry, 

the subject of dispute. able,ness ary ed er 

ing ist less, un able,ness ably ed ing. 

Quaero, to ask. 
un. Quick, sax. Swift, hasty, active, brisk, alive, to re- 
vive. en,er,ing,ed ly ness. un ened. 
un. Ransack, dan. To search thoroughly, to pillage, to 

violate, ed ing. un ed. 
mis. Rate, Ratus. Price or amount stated or fixed on any 

thing, tax, settled allowance, ratio, ed er 

able ably. mis. Reor, to judge or think. 
un. Real, Realis. Actual existence, true, genuine, not 

fictitious, ity ize,ed,ing,ation. un ity. Res, 

a thing. 
un. Refute, Refuio. To disprove and overthrow by argu- 
ment, ed er ing al able ation. un ed. 
co. Regent, Regens. Ruling, governing, exercising 

authority, ess ship. co. Rego, to rule, Rex, 

a king. 
un. Regret, f. Grief, sorrow of mind, remorse, to grieve 

ted ting ful,ly. 
un. Repeat, Repeto. To do, make, attempt or utter 

again, ed. er ing, un ed. 
un. Reprieve, f. To respite after sentence of death, to 

suspend execution, un ed able. 
Un Retaliate, iietalio. To return like for like, to repay 

by an act of the same kind, ed ing ion ory. 

Talis, such like. 


un. Revile, Re and vile. To reproach with opprobrious 

language, ed er ing,ly. un ed. 
un. Roll, d. To move by turning on the surface like a 

wheel, to inwrap, to spread with a roller. 

ed er ing. un ed ing. 
un. Scorn, sp. Extreme contempt, to despise, ed er 

ful,ly,ness ing. 
un. Screen, f. Any thing that separates or cuts off, a 

shelter, to sift or riddle, ed ing. un ed. 
un. Shackle, sax. To chain, to fetter, to tie or bind the 

limbs, ed ing. un ed ing. 
un. Shade, sax. The cutting off the rays of light, ob- 
scurity, a shadow, to hide, ed er y,ness ing 

ow,ed,ing,y. un ed owed, 
un. Shield, sax. A broad piece of defensive armor, a 

buckler, any defence, to cover or secure. 

ed ing. un ed. 
un. Shrink, sax. To draw back into less compass, to 

shrivel, to recoil, to express fear, ing age. 

un ing. 
un. Shroud, sax. A shelter or cover, the dress of the 

dead, a winding sheet, to take shelter, ed 

ing y. un. 
un. Skill, sax. A familiar knowledge of any art or 

science united with dexterity in its ap- 
plication, ed ful,ly,ness. un ed ful,ly,- 

un. Solicit, Solicito. To ask with some earnestness, to 

seek by petition, to try to obtain, ed or ress 

ous,ly ude ing ation. un ed ous. 
inter. Space, f. Room, extension, distance or interval, a 

short time, ful ious, ly,ness. inter. 
mis. Spell, sax. To form words with proper letters, to 

take another's place, a charm, ed er ing. mis 

ed ing. 
mis. Spend, sax. To lay out, dispose of or part with, to 

pass as time, to waste, er ing. mis er ing. 
un. Study, > Studium. Application of the mind to some- 
Student, S Studens. thing, meditation, variously 

used, er ous,ly,ness ed. un ed ous. Studeo, 

to study. 


un. Success, Successus. The favorable termination of 
any purpose. ful,ly,ness ion ive,ly,ness less,- 
ly,ness or. un ful,ly,ness ive. Cedo, to 
yield, to depart. 

un. Tame, sax. To make gentle, to domesticate, to 
civilize, to subdue, spiritless, ed er ing less 
able,ness. un ed able. 

un. Tarnish, f. To sully, to soil, to lose lustre or be- 
come dull, ed ing. un ed. 

un. Tax, f. A rate or sum of money, to lay or impose 
on, or assess a sum, to charge or censure, 
ed er ing able ation. un ed. 

over. Tedious, Taedium. Wearisome, tiresome, slow- 
ness, ly ness. over. Taedet, it wearieth. 

un. Thank, sax. To express gratitude for a favor, ed 
ful,ly,ness ing less,ness. un ed ful,ly,ness. 

un. Trouble, f. To agitate or disturb, to perplex or 
tease, affliction, calamity, ed er some,ly,- 
ness ing ous. un ed. 

mis. Understand, Under and stand. To know or compre- 
hend, to have the same ideas as the person 
who speaks, to learn, er ing,ly able. mis. 

un. Urge, Urgeo. To press, drive or impel forward, to 
press by motives, to importune, ed er ing 
ncy nt,ly. un ed. 

un. Varnish, f. A thick glossy liquid, an artificial cover- 
ing, a fair external appearance, to cover, ed 
er ing. un ed. 

re. Verberate, Verbero. To beat or strike, ion. re ed 
ing ion ory. 

un. Vex, Vexo. To irritate, or make angry by little pro- 
vocations, to plague, fret or to harass, ation 
atious,ly,ness ed er. un ed. 
Verd^ant, Viridans. Green like grass, fresh, flourish- 
ing. 4 ancy. 
Verb, Verbum. A word, a part of speech expressing 
action. al,ly,ity,ize atim. 

un. Virtue, Virtus. Moral goodness, or excellence — 
various senses, less oso ous,ly,ness al,ity,- 
, ly. un ous. 



Fifth Exercise. 

un. Actuate. To put into action, to move or incite, ed 
ing ion. un ed. Ago, to do ; actum, done. 

all. Abhor, .AMiorreo. To hate extremely, to loathe, 
despise or detest, rer red rence rency rent, 
ly. all red. Rule 5. 

super. Angel, gr. and Angelus. A spirit, a messenger sent 
from God. ic,al,,ly,,ness age. super ic. 

peri. Ap,helion, gr. apo from, helios the sun. That point 
of a planet's orbit most distant from the sun. 

semi. Aperture, Apertum. The act of opening, an opening 
semi. Aperio to open. 

peri. Apo,gee, gr. Apo from ge the earth. That point in 
a planet's orbit most distant from the earth. 
Assiduous, .Assiduus. Constant in application, atten- 
tive, ly ness t ity. sedeo, to sit. 

anti. Asthma, gr. Shortness of breath, difficulty of breath- 
ing, tic. anti tic. 

un. Authentic, f. Having a genuine original, true, genu- 
ine. al,ly,ness ate, ed, ion, ing ly ity ness. 

ant.* Arctic, gr. Northern constellation called the Bear. 

un. Bail, f. To set free from arrest, to bail water from 
a boat, a person who procures the release of 
a prisoner, able er ed ee ment bond, un ed. 

semi. Barbarian, Barbarus. A man in a savage state, semi. 

un. Benign, Benignus. Kind disposition, generous, fa- 
vorable, ant ity ly. un. 

un. Blight, sax. A disease incident to plants, to blast, 
ed. un. 

fore. Bode, sax. To portend or foreshow, an omen, ment 
fore er ing ment. unfore ing. 

* For anti. 


in. Canton, It. A small portion of land, or division of 
a territory, al ing ed ize ment. in. 

un. Canvass, f. To examine returns of votes, to seek, 
to debate, ed er ing. un ed. 

over. Captious, Captiosus. Disposed to find fault, apt to 
cavil, ly ness. over. Capio, to take. 

omni. Carnivorous, Caro flesh, and voro to devour; hence, 
Eating or feeding on flesh. ( acity. omni. 

anti. Catholic, gr. Universal or general, not bigoted, a 
papist, al ism ize ly ness. anti. 

un. Cause, Causa. The reason or motive that urges, 
that which produces an effect, sake, ac- 
count, to produce, ed less,ly,ness er ing 
able al,ty,ity,ly ation ative,ly ator. un ed. 
Challenge, norm. A calling upon one to fight in 
single combat, a claim, to invite to a trial, 
ed er ing able, un ed. 

un. Class, Classis. An order or rank of persons, a number 
of students, a scientific division, to place in 
ranks. ic,al,,lyify,ing,edific, ation. un ic,al. 

anti. Climax, gr. A figure of rhetoric, in which the sen- 
tence rises more forcibly, anti. 

in. Commute, Commxxto. To exchange one thing for 
another, to atone, al ation ative,ly able abil- 
ity, in able ably ability, un ed. 

ac. Complice, It. A confederate in some unlawful act. 
ac. Plico, to fold together. 

un. Comprise, f. To contain or include, ed er ing al. 
un ed. 

un. Confiscate, Corcfisco. To adjudge to be forfeited to 
the public treasury, ed ing ion or ory ble. 
un ed. Fiscus, a great money-hag. 

un. Conjugal, Conjugalis. Belonging to marriage, ly. 
un. Jugum, a yoke. 

un. Conjugate, Conjugo. To join, ed ion. un ed. 

Conspire, Conspire To agree or combine by oath 
to commit a crime, to plot, er ing,ly ant ator 
ation acy. 

un. Corrode, Corrodo. To eat away by degrees, to prey 
upon, ed ing ent iate ible ibility. un ed. 
Corros ion ive,lv,ness. 


anti. Cosmetic, gr. Beautifying, improving beauty. al,ly. 

de. Coy, f. Modest, reserved, shy. ish ly ness. de ed 

ing. unde ed. 
re un. Cross, w. A gibbet, to transverse, ill-humored, ed 

ing ly ness. re ed ing. un ed. 
re. Crude, Crudus. Raw, not cooked, in a natural state, 

rough, harsh, undigested, ly ness ity. re 

ency escence escency escent. 
en. Danger, f. Peril, risk, exposure to injury or loss. 

less ous,ly,ness. en ed ing ment. 
un. Defile, f. To make unclean. Also, a narrow passage. 

ed er ing ment. un ed. 
pre un. Design, Designo. To delineate a figure, to project, 

to plan, er ing less,ly ful,ness ed,ly ate,ed, 

or,ive,ing,ion. un ed,ly,ness ing. pre ed 

ing. Signum, a sign. 
un. Dilate, Dilato. To expand, enlarge, or widen, ed 

ing or ble ion bility. un ed. Latus, broad. 
in. Dilatory, f. and Latus. Drawing out ; hence slow, 

late, tardy, ly ness. in. 
un. Dilute, Zhluo. To wash, to render more liquid, 

make thin or weak, ed er ing ion <ent. — 

un ed. 
in. Dignity, Dignitas. True honor, nobleness of mind, 

rank or elevation. ( fy,ed, cation, in. Dig- 

nus, worthy. 
un. Diploma, gr. A writing giving authority, privilege, 

or honor, cy tic tist. un tic. 
un. Divorce, f. A legal dissolution of the marriage con- 
tract, ed er ing ive ment. un ed. Di and 

Discard, Sp. To dismiss, to cast off or reject, ed 

ing ure. 
Distrain, Distringo. To seize for debt, to rend or 

tear, ed or ing able. 
Discomfit, f. To rout or defeat, to scatter in flight. 

ed ing ure. 
un. Drama, gr. A composition representing a picture of 

human life. tic,al„ly tist tize. un tic,al. 


noct. Di,umal, Diurnus, dies or diu. Daily, pertaining to 
the day. noct. 

un. Domestic, Domesticus. Belonging to the house, liv- 
ing in retirement, tame. al,ly ant ate,ion. 
un ated. Domus, a house. 

un. Elicit, £licio. To draw out or bring to light, to de- 
duce, ed ing ate,ion. 
Emblem, gr. To represent by similar qualities, allu- 
sive picture. atic,al,,ly atist ize,ed,ing. 

un. Encounter, f. A meeting in contest, a single combat, 
a fight, to meet face to face, ed er ing. 
un ed. 

un. Enhance, norm. To raise or advance, to increase or 
aggravate, ed er ing ment. un ed. 

en. Epi,demic, gr. Epi, upon; Demos, the people ; pop- 
ular or general disease, en. 

un. Excise, ivrcisum. An inland duty, to lay a duty on 
goods used or consumed, ed man ing able. 
un ed. 
Exile, Exilium. Banishment, one sent into banish- 
ment, ed ing ment. 

re. Expatriate, f. To banish, to quit one's country, ed 
ing ion. re. Patria, a country. 

im. Ex,pedite, Expeiio. To hasten or quicken motion, 
speedy, ly ion ive ious,ly. 
Impede, ed ing iment,al. Pes, a foot. 
Expostulate, .Expostulo. To reason earnestly with a 
person, ed ing ion or ory, Postulo, to ask, 
from Posco, to demand. 

anti. Fanatic, Fanaticus. Wild and extravagant in opin- 
ions. al,ly,ness ism ize. anti. Fanum, a 

subter. Febri,fuge, Febris, a fever, and Fugio, to flee ; hence 
the import, removing fever, subter. 

ef. Florid, Floridus. Abounding with flowers, flushed 
with red, a stile enriched with-figures. ity ly 
ness. Flos, a flower. 

un. Foil. To frustrate, defeat, or render vain — various 
senses, ed er ing able, un ed. 

out. Frown, f. To express displeasure by contracting the 
brow, to repel, a stern look, ed ing,ly. out, 


be. Gloom. Obscurity, partial or total darkness, aspect 
of sorrow. y,ly,ness. be. 

pro. Gnostic, gr. Literally knowing or having knowledge 
of, a sect of philosophers, ism. pro able 

un. Harbor, sax. A lodging, a port for ships, a place of 
safety, to shelter, ed er ing less, un ed. 

pro. Im,min t ent, In, and Minens. Hanging in a threaten- 
ing manner ; hence, hanging over, or impend- 
ing. <ence. pro. £ ence t ency 4 ent,ly. 
Imply, i/wplico. To infold or involve, to contain by 

inference. ed,ly ing cate,ed,ing,ion,ive,,ly. 
Inculcate, i/iculco. To impress by frequent admoni- 
tions, to teach, ed ing ion. In and calco, to 
drive in, from calx, the heel. 

inter. In,cipi,ent, iwcipiens. Beginning, commencing. ,en- 
cy. inter. Capio, to take. 
Ingenious, Jwgeniosus. Possessed of genius, prompt 
to invent, skilful, ly ness. Gigno, genitus. 

re. Ingratiate, In-gratia. To commend one's self to an- 
other's good will or kindness, ed ing. re 
ed. Gratus, grateful. 

un. Intercept, f. To take or seize on by the way, to stop 
on its passage, ed er ing ion. un ed. Ca- 
pio, to take. 
Invidious, /rcvidiosus. Envious, provoking envy, 

hateful, ly ness. Video, to see 
Ignorant, Zg-norans. Destitute of knowledge, unin- 

structed. ly 4 ance. 
Lecture, Lectura. A discourse read or pronounced, 
to instruct by discourses, ed ing er ship. 
Lego, to read or choose. 
Masculine, Masculinus. Having the qualities of a 
man, strong, robust, coarse, bold, ly ness. 
Mas, a male. 

re. Masticate, Mastico. To chew, to grind with the 
teeth, ed ing ion ory. re ed ins: ion. 

inter. Medium, Medium. That through which something 
passes, the middle, inter. 

un. Merchant, f. A man who carries on trade with for- 
eign countries, one who buys and sells goods 


able man ly like, un able. Merceor, to buy, 

from Merx, mercis, merchandize. 
over. Mischief, f. Harm, hurt, injury, damage, evil, to 

hurt, (f changed to v.) ous,ly,ness. over 

re. Model, Modus. A pattern of something to be made, 

to form, ed er ing. re ed ing. 
re. Nascent, Nascens. Beginning to exist or grow. re. 

Nascor, to be born. 
e. Nucleus, Nucleus. A kernel or nut. e. Nux, nucis, 

a nut. 
Occasion, Occasio. Opportunity, accidental cause, to 

produce, able al,ly ed er ing. Cado, to fall. 
dis. Orient, Oriens. Rising as the sun, eastern, bright. 

al,ism,ist,ity. dis ated. 
im. Paca<tion, Paco. The act of appeasing, im { ble. 

Pax, peace. 
un. Palliate, f. To clothe, to cover with excuse, to con- 
ceal, to lessen, ed ing ion ive. Pallium, a 

anti. Paralytic, gr. Affected with palsy, weak, trembling. 

un. Patent, Patens. Open, expanded, a writing by proper 

authority granting certain privileges, ed ing 

ee. un ed. 
semi. Pellucid, Pe/lucidus. Perfectly clear, transparent. 

ity ness. semi. Lux, light. 
Penal, f. Enacting punishment, subject to a penalty 

ty ity. Poena, punishment. 
un. Pension, f. An annual allowance of a sum of money 

by government, ed er ing ary. un ed. 

Pendeo, to hang from. 
ante. Penult, Penultimus. The last syllable of a word ex- 
cept one. ima imate. ante. Pene, almost ; 

ultimus, the last. 
com. Peregrinate, Peregrinor. To travel from place to 

place, ion or. com. Ager, agri, afield. 
Perfidy, Perfidia. The act of violating faith, treach- 
ery. ous,ly,ness. Fides, faith. 
im. Peril, It. Danger, risk, hazard, jeopardy, to be in 

danger. ous,ly,ness. im. 


anti. Poison, f. A substance which, when taken into the 

stomach, destroys life ; infectious, malignant. 

ed er ing ous,ly,ness ful able. anti. 

n. Portray, f. To paint or draw the likeness of any 

thing, ed er ing. un ed (y is not changed.) 

de. Predial, Praeda. Pertaining to prey, practicing plun- 
der. 4 atory 4 aceous. Je.ate,ed,ing,ion,ory. 

anti. Prelate, f. A dignitary of the church, a bishop, 
ship ic,al,,ly 4 cy. anti ical. Pre and Latus, 

™ from Fero. 

de Privation, Privatio, Privus. The act of removing 

something needed, the state of being de- 
prived. t ive,ly,ness. De-privo, to take from, 
ed er ing ment able ation. unde ed. 

un. Privilege, Privilegium. A peculiar benefit enjoyed 
by one or more beyond others, ed ing. Pri- 
vus and lege, from lex, lav). 

omni. Prolific, Proles-Facio. Making fruitful, producing 
an abundance. al,ly ness ation acy. omni. 

un. Promulge, Promulgo. To publish, teach, or proclaim, 
ed er ing ate,ed,or,ing,ion. un ated. 

anti. Puritan, Purus. A dissenter from the Church of 
England, ic, al„ly ism ize. anti. 
Punctual, f. Exact, done at the exact time, ist ity 
ly ness. 

com. Pupil, Pupilla. The apple of the eye. Pupillus, a 
scholar, age ary. com. 

im. Pregnable, f. That may be taken by force, im. 

en. Ravish, f. To seize and carry away by violence, to 
delight to ecstacy. ed er ing,ly ment. en. 
ed ing ment. 

arch. Rebel, .Rebellis, and Rebello. One who revolts 
from the government, also to revolt, led ler 
ling lion lious,ly,ness. arch. Bellum, war. 

un. Reciprocate, Rcciproco. To interchange, to alter- 
nate, ed ing ion ( l,ly,ness. un ed. Capio, 
to take. 

inter. Reign, Regno. To possess sovereign power, to rule 
as a king, ed er ing. inter. 


un. Reprimand, f. To reprove severely, to chide for a 
fault, a reproof, ed ing. un ed. 
Requisite, Requisitus. Required by the nature of 
things, necessary, ly ness. quaero, to ask. 

ir. Rigation, Rigatio. The act of watering, ir. Rigo, 

to water. 

un. Righteous, sax. Just, according to the Divine law, 
justified, ly ness. un ly ness. 

cor. Robor t ant, Roborans. Strengthening. 4 ation. cor. 
4 ant 4 ate,ed,ing,ion,ive. Robur, oak. 

un. Romantic. Pertaining to romance, wild, fanciful. 
al,ly ness. Romance ed er ing. un. 

un. Ruminate, Rumino. To chew the cud ; hence, to 
muse, meditate, ponder, ed ing ion or. 
tin ed. 

all. Sagacious, sagax. Quick of scent, quick of thought, 
acuteness of discernment, ly ness^ty. all. 

un. Saint, f. and Sanctus. A person sanctified, a holy 
person or Christian, ed ess ly like ship. 
un ed. 

en. Sample, Exemplum. A specimen, example, or in- 
stance, er. en. 

un. Savor, f. Taste or odor, an agreeable quality, to 
taste or smell. y,ly,ness less ly. «ny,ly,ness. 

un. Season, f. A fit or suitable time, a particular time, 
a part of the year, to become mature — va- 
rious senses, ed er ing able,ness ably, tin 
ed able,ness ably. 
Sedate, Sedatus, Sedeo. Settled, composed, calm. 

ly ness ive. 
Sedition, ) Seditio. A factious or tumultuous as- 
Seditious, $ sembly. ary. ly ness. 


be. Siege, f. The setting an army before a fortified 

place, be ed er ing. unbe ed. 

en. Shrine, sax. A case or box particularly for sacred 

things, en ed ing. unen ed. 

be. Smear, sax. To overspread with any adhesive mat- 


ter, to pollute, ed ing y. be ed er ing. 

unbe ed. 
un. Smooth, sax. Having an even surface, evenly 

spread, glossy, ed er en ly ness. un. 
be. Sot, f. A stupid person, a blockhead, an habitual 

drunkard. tish,ly,ness. be ted,ly,ness ting. 
be. Spangle. A small plate of shining metal, as an or- 
nament, ed ing. be ed ing. 
anti. Spasm, Spasmus. An involuntary contraction of the 

muscles, odic. anti odic. 
un. Speculate, Speculor. To meditate, to purchase goods 

with a view of gaining a profit, ion ist 

ive,ly,ness or ory. un ive. 
re. Stagnate, Stagno, Stagnum. To cease to flow or 

move, to become dull, ion 4 ant 4 ancy. re 

ion 4 ant. 
un. Staunch, ) sax. To stop the flowing of blood, sound, 

Slanch, $ firm, ed er ing less ness. un ed. 
inter. Stellar, ) Stellaris. Pertaining to the stars, y. inter. 
con. Stellate, $ Stella. A star, ed ing ion. con ion. 

Supersede, Super-sedeo. To make void or useless 

by superior power, to come in the room of. 

ed ing ure. Sedeo, to sit. 
un. Surprise, f. To come or fall upon suddenly, to con- 
fuse, ed ing,ly al. un ed. 
un. Sustain, Sustmeo. To bear, uphold or support, to 

assist, ed er ing able, un ed. Teneo, to 

Symbol, Symbolum. The sign of any moral thing 

by images or properties of natural things, an 

emblem, ic, al,,ly ism ize,ation,ing. 
Syn,opsis, gr. A general view of the principal parts. 
Terse, ) Tersus. Cleanly written, neat, ly ness. 

J Deterge, Dctergo. To cleanse, ed 

ent ing. 
super. Terrene, Terrenus, Terra. Pertaining to the earth. 

extra. Territory, Territorium. A tract of land under the 

dominion of some state. al,ly. extra al. 
mono. Theo,machy, gr. Theos, God, and Mache, to fight ; 

hence, fighting against the gods. ist. mono, 


Sixth Exercise. 

N. B. Many legitimate derivative forms are designedly 
omitted on account of their rare occurrence in standard 


ad con per. Abjure, A&juro. To renounce upon oath, to re- 
cant, ed er ing ment ation atory. con 
er ed ing ment ation atory. Juro, to 

an. Accent, .Accentus. To utter words by a particu- 

lar stress of voice, ed ing. un ed. Ac- 
centu al ate ation. Cano, to sing. 

all un. Admire, Admxxox, admiratio. To regard with 

wonder, ed er ing,ly able,ness ability 
ation ative. un ed ing. all ing. Minis 

un. Achieve, f. To perform, execute, finish, or gain, 

ed er ing ment able ance. tin ed able. 

re un. Adorn, Adoxno. To deck or ornament, to make 

pleasing, ed ing ment. un ed. re. 

un Appall, ^ppalleo. To depress with fear, dis- 

mayed, ed ing ment. un ed. 

in un. Artificial, Ars-facio. Made by art, feigned, ly 

ity ness. in ly. un ly. 

ad con re. A,stringe, Astringo, astringens. Binding, con- 
tracting, to compress, ed ent ing ency. 
sub ent. ad ent. Stringo, to bind. 

all un. Atone, Atone. To expiate, to agree, ed er ing 

ment. un ed able, all ing. 
un re 

de. At,tach, f. To take by legal authority, to bind, 

adhere or fasten to. ed ing able ment. 
re ment. un ed. de ed ing ment. 

contra. Circum.vallate, CircumvaWo. To surround with 

a rampart, ion. contra ion. Vallo, to 
; fortify. 


in mis ex Cite, Cito. To call upon officially, to quote, er 

mis fore ess al ation atory. ex ant able ate ation 

~ ative atory ed ment er. unex ed. mis 

ation. in er ed ant ing ation ment ability. 

Cieo, to move, or incite. 

con in un. Coagulate, Coagulo. To congeal, curdle, or con- 
crete, ed ing ion ive or ble bility. un 
ed ble. in ble. con ed ing ion. 

in. Coerce, Coerceo. To restrain by force, to com- 

pel, ed ible ing ion ive,ly. in ible. 
Con-arceo, to restrain. 

dis con. Color, Color. The property inherent in light, 
to dye, to alter, ed able ably ist less 
ate ation ature ific. dis ed ing ation. 
undis ed. 

ob soli ambi Col,loquy, Colloquium. A dialogue or confer- 

anti ence. al st. al. Loquor, to speak. 

circum al. 

mis pre self. Conceit, It. Imagined, notion, fancy. ed,ly, 
ness less. pre. self ed,ness. 

un. Condemn, Condemno. To pronounce guilty or 

wrong, er ed ing able, un ed. Con- 
demnat ion ory. Damnus, hurt. 

un. Confine, Corafinis. The border or edge, to limit 

or bound, er ed ing ment less, un ed, 
ly able. Finis, the end. 
self over 

dif. Con,fide, ConMo. To trust or rely on, to com- 

mit to. ed er ent,ly,ness ence 
over ence. self ence ent ing. dif ence 
ent,ly. Fides, faith, trust. 

all re un. Conquer, f. To subdue or gain by force, to over- 
come, or ess ing ed able,ness. un ed 
able.ness. re ed ing. all ing. 

dis in un. Console, Consolor. To comfort or alleviate grief, 
ed er able ate,ion,or k ory. un ed ing. in 
able ably, dis ate,ly,ness,ion ancy. So- 
lor, to comfort. 




in un 


in un. 


after self. 

in un. 


Constant, Constans. Fixed, firm, certain, steady, 
ly cy. un. in ly cy. Sto, to stand; 
con, together. 

Consummate, Consummo. To end, finish or 
complete, ed ing ion ly. un. Summus. 

Contend, Contendo. To strive, dispute, or quar- 
rel, ed er ing ent. un ed ing. Content 
ion ious,ly,ness. 

Contest, f. To dispute, strive, or contend, a 
strife. ing,ly less able,ness ation. uned 
able, in able ably. Testis, a witness. 

Contiguous, Ct/ntiguus. Touching, meeting, ly 
ness,ity. inpxis. Tango, to touch. 

Convict, Coravictum. To prove guilty, to con- 
vince, or confute, ed ing ion ive,ly. 
self edion. after ion. Vinco, to conquer. 

Converse, Cowversor. Familiar discourse, de- 
portment, ablemess ably, un able, in 
able. Conversat ion,ed,ist ive. Verto, 
to turn. 

Counterfeit, f. To forge or imitate, to feign or 
dissemble, er ed ly ness. un. Facio, 
to make. 

ac dis. Credit. Belief, reliance, trust, to believe, or 

ed ing able,ness ably rix. dis ed able 

over in un. ing. ac ed ing ation. unac ed. un ed 

able,ness. Credul ous,ly,ness. in ity 
ous,ness. over ous. Credi ble,ness 
bility. in ble,ness bly bility. Credo, 
to believe. 

re in. Curve, Curvus. Bending, crooked, winding, ed 

ing ity ated ation ature. in ate,ed,ing, 
ion ity. re ed ous ate,ion. 

dis un 

Custom, f. Frequent or common use, to make 
familiar, ed er able,ness ably ary,ness, 
ly. ac ed,ness ing ance ary,ly. disac 
ed. unac ed. , 


pre. Decease, Decessus. Departure from this life, 

to die. ed ing. pre ed. Cedo, to yield. 

un. Decipher, f. To explain what is written in ci- 

phers, to unravel, edering. wraedable. 

un. Despair, f. and Desperatus. A hopeless state, 

without hope, er ing,ly able ful. un ing. 
Spes, hope. 

pro un De,test, Z)etestor, detestatus. To abhor, abom- 

inate, ed er ing able, 

ness ably ation. un ed. pro ed er ing 
ation ant,ism,ly. De and Testis. 

un. Defray, f. To pay expenses, to discharge, ed 

er ing ment. un ed. 

in. Desert, Desertus. An uninhabited waste, to for- 

sake, deserving good or evil, er ed ing 
,ion ful less,ly rice rix. in. De and 
sertus, from sero, to sow. 

pro. De,tect, .Detectus. To uncover, find out or dis- 

cover, ed er ing ion. un ed. re ion. 

pro ed or, ship ing ion ive ress orate. 

Tego, to cover. 
in. Doctrine, Doctrina. Truths of the gospel, or 

other truths. al,ly. in ate,ed,ing,ion. 

Doceo, to teach. 
in. Efficacy, _E/ficacia. Power to produce effects. 

ous,ly,ness. in ous,ly,ness. Facio, to 

in un. Elastic, f. Rebounding like a ball, flying back. 

al,ly ity. un. in ity. 
dis. Embroil, f. To involve in troubles, to perplex. 

ed ing ment. dis ed ing. 
co pre. Emption, Emptio. The act of buying, pre. 

Emo, to buy. 
dis un. En, chant, f. To practice sorcery, to delight, ed 

er ing,ly ment ress. un ed. dis ed er 

ing. Cano, cantum, to sing. 
after. Endeavor, norm. To exert physical or mental 

power, an attempt, ed er ing. after. 
un. Envy, f. To feel uneasiness in view of another's 


un. prosperity, ing ed er ous,ly able, un ed 


inter Equinoctial, Equus-nox. Pertaining to equal 

day and night, ly. inter. 

un. Equity, ^Equitas. Strict justice, right, able, 

ness. un able. Equus, equal. 

un. Essay, f. To try or attempt, a trial or experi- 

ment, ed er ing ist. un ed. 

dis mis sell. Esteem, f. To set a value, to prize, ed er ing 
able, dis ed ing. self. iEslimo. 

in mis self. Estimate, iEslimo. To judge of the value of any 
thing, or ed ing ble,ness ion ive. self 
ion. dis ion. 

un. Exert, .Eaertus. To thrust forth, emit, put forth 

or do. ed ing ion. un ed. Ex-sero. 

in un. Expert, .Expertus. Experienced, skilful, prompt, 

ly ness. un. in. Perior, to try. 

un. Explore, Ex\)\oro. To search for or pry into, to 

view with care, ed ing ment ation ator 
atory. un ed. 

dis. Ex,plode, £xplodo. To burst with force, to re- 

ject, ed ing er. dis ed ing. Explos 
ion ive. dis ion ive. Plaudo, to make 
a noise by clapping hands. 

un. Expend, -Earpendo. To lay out, disburse, use or 

consume, edingiture. un ed. Expense 
ful,ly less ive,ly,ness. un ive. 

pro. Ex,pound, £;rpono. To explain, lay open, or in- 

terpret, ed er ing. pro ed er ing. Ex- 
posit ion ive or ory. Pono, to place. 

un. Extirpate, .Eztirpatus. To pluck up by the roots, 

to remove, ed or ing ion ble. un ed. 

in un. Extinguish, Extmgao. To put out, quench, or 

destroy, ed er ing able ment. un ed 
able ably, in able. 

dcxxa. Fault, f. An error, mistake, or blunder, y ed 

er ful ily iness ing less,ness. un y. de 
ed er ing. 


in. Flame, Flamma. A blaze, fire, ardor, rage, less 


ing,ly y. Flamma We bility. Inflamma 

tion ble bility bleness tory. unin. 
de in inter Foliate, Foliatus. To spread over with a thin 
extra supra coat of tin, to furnish with leaves, ed 

tri. ing ion ure. inter, in. de ion. extra 

ceous. Folium, a leaf. 
all un. Forgive, sax. To pardon, remit or overlook, en 

ness er ing. un en ing. all ing. 

con. Genial, Genialis. That which causes to produce, 

cheering, ly. con ness ity. uncon. 

incon ity. Genus, a race, from Gigno. 
extra poly. Genus, Genus. A class of several species, 

plants of the same sort, extrageneus. 
ag. Grieve. To give pain of mind, to afflict, to 

mourn, ed er ing,ly ous,ly,ness. ag 

ed ing. Gravis, heavy. 
ag. Group, f. A cluster or crowd, ed ing. ag ed. 

un. Harass, f. To weary, fatigue, or tease, ed er 

ing. un ed. 
un. Harm, sax. To damage or injure in any way. 

ed ful,ly,ness ing less,ly,ness. un ed. 
contra. Impetus, impetus. Force of motion, contra 

Impetu 4 ous,ly,ness ; osity. Peto, to seek. 
dis. Incarcerate, Incarcero. To imprison or put in 

jail. ion. dis ion. Career, a prison. 

en. In,dorse, Indorsum. To write on the back of a 

paper, to assign, able ee er ment. en 
ment. un ed. Dorsum, the back. 

over un. Industry, Industria. Habitual diligence. ous,ly. 
un ous. over ous. 

af con suf In,flate, Znflatus. To fall with the breath, to swell 
dif per. ed ing ion. suf ion. exsuf ion. per ble 

re ion. af us ion. Flo, to blow. 

inter. In,sert, /nsertus. To thrust in, to set among 

ed ing ion. re ed ing ion. inter ion 
Sero, to sow. 


sub super. Institute, Instituo. To establish, enact, found, 
or begin, ed ing or ist ive ion,al,ary. 
super ion. In and sto, to stand. 

re. Insurrection, /rcsurgo, insurrectum. Rising 

against civil authority, al ary. re. — 
Surgo, to rise. 

super un. Intend, /ntendo. To mean or to design, to 
stretch in. ed,ly er ing ant ment. un ed. 
super ed ing ent ence ency. Intentus, In- 
tent ion,al,ly,ed ive,ly,ness ly ness. 

dis re. Inter, f. To bury or cover with earth, ed. dis 

ed. In and terra, the earth. 

re un. Interrogate, Interxogo. To question, ed ing ion 

ivedyorory. re. Rogo, to desire or beg. 

un dis dis 

en. In,thrall. To enslave, to shackle, ed ing ment. 

dis ed ing ment. en ed ing ment. disen 

ed ing ment. unen ed. 
ex sub. In,undate, Zmmdatus. To overflow, to deluge. 

ed ing ion. sub ion. Unda, a wave. 
un. Investigate, Tnvestigo. To search into with 

care, ed ing ion or ble ive. un ble. 

Vestigium, a footstep. 
un. Invite, Invito, invitatio. To ask, allure, or in- 

duce, ed er ment ing,ly,ness ation atory . 

un ed. 
pre. Intimate, Intimatus. Near, familiar, inmost, to 

hint, ed ly ing ion cy. pre ion. Intus, 

ex. Intricate, Intricatus. Perplexed, obscure, en- 

tangled, ly ness ion cy ex ed ing 

ion ble. Tricae, an impediment. 
re. Lease, f. A letting of lands and tenements for 

a certain time, ed er ing hold, re ed 

er ing ment. 
ex. Legislate, Legis-latum. To make or enact laws. 

ion ive ure rix ress or, ship, ex or. 
il. Legitimate, f. and Legitimus. To make lawful. 

ly ness ion cy. ?7ionlycy. Lex legis, 



pre. Libation, Libatio. The wine poured out in honor 

of a deity, pre. Libo, to taste. 

il Lustrate, Lustro. To make clear or pure, to 

view or survey, ion. il ed ing ion ive, 

ly or. vnil. ed. 
un(forunus, Magn,animous. Magna, great; animus, mind. 
one) equ. ly. un ly. 

im. Manacle, f. Handcuffs, shackles, ed ing. im 

ed ing. Manus, a hand. 
dis. Mantle, sax. A kind of cloak, to cloak or cover. 

ing. dis ed ing. 
bi. Manu ( al, Manualis. Performed by hand, a small 

book. <ary. fo'-manous. Manus, a hand. 
counter de. Mark, sax. A visible line, to note or distinguish, 

evidence, ed er able, counter, un ed. 

inter re un. Marry, f. To unite in wedlock, ed able age, 

able, mm ed able, reeding, inhered ing 

dis over. Mast, sax. That which holds the sails of a ship. 

ed. dis ed ing ment. over ed. 
inter un. Meddle, d. To interpose, or having to do with, 

to handle, ed ing some,ness. un ed 

ing. inter er ing. 
a. Meliorate, f. and Melior. To make better, to im- 

prove, ed ing ion. a ion. Bonus, good. 
im e sub. Merge, Mergo. To bury under water, er. e 

ent ence ency. im. sub ed ing. Mers 

ion. e ion. im ed ing ion. sub ed ion. 
un. Molest, f. To trouble, disturb, or render uneasy. 

ed er ing ful ation. un ed. 

a be. Muse, Musa. A song, one of the nine sisters, 

deep thought, er ful less, be ed. a ed er 
ment ing,ly ive,ly. una ed ing ive. 

inter. Mutual, Mutuus. Interchange, given and receiv- 

ed, ly ity. inter. 

do. Narcotjc, gr. Causing stupor, inducing sleep. 

al,ly ness. denize. 


counter. Negotiate, Negotior. To transact business, ed 
ing or ion ble bility. counter ion. Ne- 
un gotium, business ; nec-otium, not ease. 

re. New, sax. Lately made — various senses, ly 

ish ness. re al ed,ly,ness ing. unre ed. 

dis un. Obey, f. To comply with the commands of an- 

other, to yield to. ed er ing. un ed. 
dis ed ing. 

pre re un. Obtain, Oitineo. To get or gain, to succeed, 
ed er ing ment able, un ed able, re ed 
ing able, pre ed. Teneo, to hold. 

semi. Opaque, Opacus. Dark, not transparent, ness. 


dis un. Own, sax. Belonging to, to have the legal right, 

ed er.ship ing. un ed. dis ed ing. 

de un. Oxygen, gr. A substance which generates acid. 

ate,ed,ing,ion ize,ed,ing,ment. un ated 
ized. de ate,ed,ing,ion. 

un. Parallel, gr. Running in accordance with some- 

thing, ly ism less ogram,ic„al. un ed. 

im. Partial, Pars. Biased to one party, to favor with- 

out reason, ist ity ize ly. im al,ly. 

co. Partner. One who shares with another, an as- 

sociate, ship, co ship. 

im. Passive, Passivus. Suffering, not acting, ly ity 

ness. Patior, to suffer. 

anti co com. Patriot, f. A person who loves his country, ic 
ism. com. co. anti ic. Pater, a father. 

de dis. Pauper, Pauper. A poor person, ism. dis. de 


ad ob in. Pen,umbra, Pene-umbra. A partial shade or ob- 
scurity, in te. ob te,ion. ad. 

de. Perdition, Perditio. Entire loss or ruin, de ion 

Per and do. 

im un. Perforate, Perforo. To bore or make holes 

through, ed ing ion ive or. un ed. im 
ed ion ble. 

un. Perform, Per-formo. To do, execute, or dis- 

charge, ed ing er ance able, un ed ing. 

im. Person, Persona. An individual man or woman, 


some one. al,ly,ity age able ate,ion,or 
un ize ify,ed,ing,cation. im al,ly,ity ate.ed. 

tran. Per,spire, Per-spiro. To evacuate fluids of the 

body through the pores of the skin, able 
ability ation atory ative. un able, trans 
able ing ation. 

semi un. Petrify, Petra-facio. To convert to stone, to 
make callous, ed ing cate,ion. un ed. 
Petrifaction ive. semi ion. 

de. Pletho.ry, gr. Fullness of blood. ( ra ( ric ( retic. 

de depleo, depletion. 
Pliant, f. That may be easily bent, flexible, 
ness. Plia^ble^bility^bleness. Pli- 

co, to fold. 

counter com Plot. Any scheme, to contrive, a small extent 

under. of ground, ted ter ting, com ted ter ting 

ment. counter ting, under. 

dis im un. Plume, f. and Pluma. The feathers of a fowl, 
token of honor, pride, less, un ed. im 
ed ous. dis ed ing. 

re un. Polish, f. To make smooth, refinement in man- 

ners, er ing ed,ness able ment. un ed. 

dis super Praise, commendation bestowed, ed er ful less 

self un. able ing worthy ,ly,ness. un ed. super, 

dis ed er ing,ly ible. 

un. Profane, Profanus. Irreverent to any thing sa- 

cred, to pollute, ed er ing ly ness ity 

un ation. un ed. Fanum, a temple. 

com un fore Promise, Promissum. Declaration made by one 
person to another, ed er ing ee sory,ly. 
uraing. com eder ing sorial. uncom ing. 

re Pro and mitto, to send. 

im re un. Print, w. To impress letters or figures — vari- 
ously used, ed er ing less, un ed. re 
ed ing. im ed ing. reim ed ing. 

im un. Propitiate, Propitio. To conciliate, ed ing ion 

or ory ble. Propitious ly ness. un ous, 
ly. im ous. 

ir un. Recover, f. To gain any thing, to obtain, ed or 

ing ee able. ?/nedable. ?rable,ness ably. 


mis out un. Reckon, sax. To count, compute, esteem, con- 
clude, ed er ing. tin ed. out. 

un. Rebuke, norm. To chide, reprove, restrain, or 

punish, ed er ing ful,ly able, un able. 

un. Replenish, norm. To fill, to finish, to complete, 

ed ing. un ed. Plenus, full. 

un. Request, .Requisitus. Expression of desire, pe- 

tition, ed er ing. un ed. Quaero, to ask. 

non. Resemble, f. To bear the likeness of, in any 

respect, able ance ed ing. non ance. 
Similis, like. 

un. Respite, f. Temporary intermission, delay, to 

suspend, ed ing. un ed. 

un. Restore, 2?estauro. To give back, replace, or 

heal, ed er ing ment al able ation ative. 

un un ed. 

in. Retrench, f. To cut off, to pare away, lessen or 

abridge, ed ing ment. in ed ing ment. 

unin ed. 
ad a con. Restrict, i?estrictus. To limit, to confine within 

bounds, ed ing ion ive,ly. con ed ing or 

ion. as ed ing ion ive ory. ad ion ory. 
ir un. Retrieve, f. To recover, regain, or repair, ed 

ing able, ir able,ness ably, 
super un. Reward, norm. To give in return either good or 

evil, ed er ing able,ness. un ed. super. 
dis en un. Robe, f. A kind of gown, a loose garment, to 

dress, ed. un. dis ed ing. 
mis dis un 

com Re,pute, ReyuXo. To think, to account or reckon. 

un ed,ly ing less able,ness ably ation. un 

^ able, mis ed. dis able ation. com ed er 

ist ing able ation. miscom ation. im ed er 

ing able,ness ation ative,ly. unim able, 
circum. Rotajy, Rota. Turning as a wheel on its axis. 

t te,ed,ion,ive,ory. circum ^ion. 
super un. Royal, f. Kingly, noble, magnificent, ly ty ist 

ism ize. un. super. 
super. Sali ( ent, Saliens. Leaping, moving by leaps. 

super tendency. Salio, to leap. 


un. Sanction, Sanctio. Ratification, to ratify or con- 

firm, ed ing. un ed. Sanctus, from 
sancio, sacred. 

super un. Secular, f. Pertaining to things of this world, 
ity ize,ed,ing,ation ness ly. un ize. su- 
per. Seculum, the world, an age. 

un re. Settle, sax. A seat or bench, to fix or establish, 

to fall to the bottom. ed,ness ment ing. 
un ed,ness ing. re ed ing. 

dis un. Sever, f. To part by violence, to separate. al,ity, 

ize,ly,ty ance. un ed. dis ed ing ance. 

un. Slumber, sax. To sleep lightly, sloth, supine- 

ness. er ing ous y. un ing. 

un. Steady, sax. Firm, constant, regular, to keep 

from shaking, ly ness. un ly ness. 

ob. Stupefy, Stupefacio. To make stupid, dull, to 

blunt the perception, er ing ^action 
4 active. o5 4 action 4 active. Stupeo, to be 

un. Supplant. To undermine, to trip up the heels, 

ed er ing ation. un ed. Planta, the 
sole of the foot. 

pre. Suppose, tS^positus. To state what may be, to 

imagine, al able ed er ing ition,al itive, 
ly itory. pre al ed ing ition. Pono, to 

over re un. Supply, Sw^pleo. To furnish what is wanted, to 
fill, ed er ing ment. un able, re ed 
pre over. Pleo, to fill. Rule 2. 

pre. Sur,mise, norm. To suspect without certain 

knowledge, suspicion, ed er ing al. 

pre. pre. 
non over. Sur,plus, f. Sur, lat. Plus. An excess of any 
super. thing, age. super age. over. non. 

super. Terrestrial, Terrestris. Pertaining to the earth. 

ly. super. Terra, the earth. 
un. Till, sax. To cultivate the ground, able age er 

ing ed. un ed. 
un. Tire, sax. To weary or fatigue. ed,ness some, 

ness ing. un ed ing. 



en in un. Tomb, f. and Tumulus. A grave or vault for the 
dead. less. un. in ed ing. en ed ing. 
unen ed. Tumeo, to swell. 

super. Tragic, gr. and Tragicus. Pertaining to tra- 

gedy, mournful. al,ly,ness. super al. — 
Tragedy an. 

semi. Transparent, Trans-pareo. Admitting a passage 

for light, open. t ency 4 ent,ly,ness. semi 
4 ent ( ency. 

mal. Treat, f. To manage, to discourse, an entertain- 

ment, ed er ing y ment ise,er able ably. 

ir mal ed ing ment. 

re. Turn, sax. To change the course — various 

senses, ed er ing ery. re ed er ing 

less able, irre able. 
e. Vanish, Vanesco. To disappear, to pass away. 

ed ing. e vanesc ence ent. 
over un. Veil, Velum. To cover or hide, a cover of any 

kind, un ed,ly. over. 
anti. Varioloid, lat. Variolae and gr. eidos. A varied 

form resembling small-pox. 
in. Vinci ( ble, Vinco. That may be overcome, ness. 

?n 4 ble,ness ( bly. 
re un. Visit, Visito. To come to see, to attend, the act 

of going, ed er ing ant able ation orial 

atorial. un ed. re ed ing ation. Viso, 

from video, to see. 
un. Vital, Vitalis. Pertaining to life, either animal 

or vegetable, ity ize ly. un. Vita, life. 
un. Vitiate, Vitio. To injure the substance of any 

thing, to make it impure, ed ing ion. 
un . un ed. Vitium, vice. 

fore un. Warn, sax. To give notice of approaching dan- 
ger, to caution, ed er ing. un ed. fore 
ed ing. unfore ed. 

over. Whelm, sax. To cover with water or other fluid, 

to overburden, ed ing. over ing,ly. 

semi. Metalloid. Resembling a metal, in some respects 

like a metal, semi. 


over un. 






mis un. 




mis un. 


un. a. 

Awe, dan. Fear mingled with reverence, ed 

ful,ly,ness. over, un ed. 
Bleach, sax. To whiten or make white, ed er, 

y ing. un ed. 
Blind, sax. Destitute of the sense of seeing, ed 

ing ly ness fold,ed,ing. 
Candid, Candidus. White, fair, open, frank, free 

from bias, impartial, ly ness. un. Can- 

deo, to be white. 
Care, sax. Concern, anxiety, solicitude, caution. 

ful,ly,ness less,ly,ness. un ed. over 

ful. Cura, care. 
Contrite, Contritus. Broken-hearted for sin, 

humble, penitent, ly ness ion. un. — 

Tero,tritum, to rub. 
Dedicate, Dedico. To set apart and consecrate 

to a sacred use. ed ing ion or ory. un 

ed. Dico, to consecrate. 
Mild, sax. Soft, gentle, not acrid, moderate, 

calm, ly ness. un ness. 
Ornament, Ornamentum. That which embel- 
lishes, to adorn, ed ing al,ly. un ed al. 
Rectify, Rectus-facio. To make right, to correct. 

ed er ing able cation, un ed. 
Repine. To fret one's self, to murmur, to feel 

discontent, er ing,ly. un ing,ly. 
Shape, sax. To form, mould or adjust the form. 

ly,ness ed less,ness. un en. 

State, Status. The condition of any thing, rank, 
to express, body politic. ed,ly ly,ness 
ment. in ed ing. rein ed ing merit, after, 
un. mis ed ing ment. Sto, to stand. 

Supine, Supinus. Lying on the back, heedless, 
indolent, ly ness ator ation. re ate.ion. 

Symmetry, gr. A due proportion of parts ize 
icaljy ist ian. un ical. a. 



Seventh Exercise. 

all. Abandon, f. To forsake entirely, to renounce, de- 
sert, or resign, 
nn. Abolish, Aboleo, abolitio. To make void, annul, or 

un. Abridge, f. To make shorter, to contract, lessen, or 

diminish. Brevis, short. 
un. Adapt. Adapto, adaptatus. To make suitable, to fit 

to the use. Apto, to ft. 
un. Addict, Ad&\co, acMictus. To apply one's self 

habitually to any thing. Dico, to dedicate. 
in. Adequate, ^t/equatus. Equal to, fully sufficient. 

Aequus, equal. 
un. Adulterate, Adultero. Tainted by adultery, debased 

by mixture, 
dis. Advantage, f. Benefit, to yield profit, to promote in- 
un. Alleviate, .AZlevio. To make light, to remove in 

part. Levis, light, 
un. Ambition, Amhiiio. A desire to excel. Am and eo, 

to go around. 
un. Ambiguous, .Ambiguus. Doubtful, having two or 

more meanings. Am and ago. 
un. Amiable, Amabilis. Deserving of love or esteem. 

Amo, to love. 
un. Analyze, gr. To resolve a body into its elements, to 

separate a compound, 
un. Analogy, gr. Likeness in some respects between 

un. Apology, gr. An excuse, 
un. Appease, f. To make quiet, to calm, or pacify. 

Pax, pacis, peace. 
un. Apprise, f. To inform or give notice. 
un. Arraign, norm. To call a prisoner to the bar, to 



un. Assail, f. Ad-salio. To fall upon by violence, to 

co Belligerent, Bellum-Gerens. Waging war. 

un Benefit Bencficium. An act of kindness, profit. 
Bene-Facio, to do well. 

un. Blemish. Any mark of deformity, reproach 

un. Cancel. To blot out, obliterate, annul, or cross out. 
Cancello, to cut cross-wise. 

un. Censure, Censura. The act of blaming, to blame. 

un. Clarify, Clarus-facio. To make clear or purify. 

in. Clem 4 ency, dementia. Mildness of temper, merci- 
ful. Clemens, mild. 

in. Commensurate, it. and Commensus. Reducible to 
the same measure. Mensura, a measure. 

un. Commiserate, Commiseor, commiseratus. To pity, 
or feel sorrow for. Miser, miserable. 

in. Combustion, Combustio. A burning, tumult or up- 
roar. Comburo, to burn, from Uro. 

in. Competent, Ct/mpetens. Suitable, fit, adequate, 
sufficient for. 

in. Compatible, f. Consistent, suitable, agreeable. 

un. Connive, Connheo. To close the eyes upon, or 
overlook a fault. Niveo, to wink. 

un. Contumacy, Contumacia. Stubbornness, obstinacy, 
unyielding. Tumeo, to swell. 

in in 

abs. Con,tin ( ence, Continentia. Restraint imposed on 
the passions. Teneo, to hold. 

un. Deify, Deus-facio. To make a god, to exalt. 

mis. Demean, f. To behave or conduct one's self. 

un. Demolish, Demolior, demolitio. To throw down, 
destroy, or lay in ruins. Moles, a heap. 

in. Delicate, f. and Dcliciae. Of a fine texture, nice, 

un. Deprave, Depxavo, Jcpravatio. To make bad or cor- 
rupt, to impair. Pravus, wrong, wicked. 

ex. Des,ecrate, De-sacro. To divert from a sacred pur- 
pose. Sacer, holy. 

un. Discipline, Zh'sciplina. Education, government, cor- 
rection. Discipulus, a scholar, from disco, 
to learn. 


in. Discriminate, Dwcrimino. To distinguish or mark 

the difference. 
un. Dissemble, Dis-similo, dissimilatio. To disguise or 

pretend that to be which is not. Similis, 

un. Dissipate, Dissipatus. To scatter, disperse, or drive 

pre. Dominate, Dominatus. To rule over, to govern. 

Domus, a house, 
in. Ebriety, Ebrietas. Drunkenness, 
un. Equivocate, f. and Equus-vocatus. To use words of 

a doubtful meaning. Voco, to call, 
in. Ex,hale, i?a:halo, exhalatio. To send out as vapor, 

to breathe out. Halo, to breathe. 
un. Exhilerate, i?;rhilero. To make merry, to enliven, 

to cheer. Hilaris, merry. 
un. Except, f. To leave out, to exclude, or object to. 

Ex-capio, to take from. 
un. Exorable, £xorabilis. That may be moved by en- 
treaty. Oro, to entreat, os the mouth. 
un. Expand, .Ea-pando, expansum. To enlarge, spread, 

or open, 
in. Ex,trinsic, Extrinsicus. External, outward, 
un. Extol, -Etftollo. To raise in words, to praise, or 

con. Federate, Federatus. Leagued or united. Foedus, 

a covenant. 
in. Fidelity, Fidelitas. Faithfulness, honesty. Fides, 

un. Frustrate, Frustro. To defeat or disappoint, 
con. Gratulate, Gratulor. To express joy. Gratus, 

un. Hallow, sax. To make holy, to consecrate. 
in. Hearse, f. A carriage for the dead, to put in a 

un. Humble, Humilis. Lowly, meek, modest, to abase 

or subdue, to mortify. Humus, the ground. 
in. Hospitable, Hospitabilis. Kindness to strangers, 

kindness. Hospes, a guest. 
de. In,crease, /ncresco. To become greater in any 



ex. In,liumate, /nhumo. To bury or inter the dead. 

Humus, the ground. 
un. Initiate, Initio. To instruct in first principles, to in- 
troduce. Eo, to go. 
un. Insulate, Insula. To place in a detached situation. 
ex. Internal, Internus. intrinsic. 
il. Luxury, Luxuria. Extravagant indulgence in any 

im. Maculate, Maculo. To spot or stain. Macula, a 

im. Martial, Martialis. Pertaining to war. Mars, the 

god of war. 
un. Mutilate, Mutilo. To cut or break off as a limb, 
pre. Notion, Notio. Opinion, sentiment, conception. 

Nosco, to knoiv. 
in. Novation, Novatum. To change or alter. Novus, new. 
in. Nutrition, Nutritio. Promoting growth, that which 

nourishes. Nutrio, to nurse. 
pre. Omen, Omen. A sign, indication, prognostic, 
im. Penitent, Poenitens. One who repents of his sins, 

suffering sorrow on account of sins. Poena, 

un. Perjury, Perjurium. Wilfully making a false oath. 

Juro, to swear. 
un. Persecute Persecutes. To pursue to injure, vex, 

or harass. Sequor, to pursue. 
im. Pertinent, Pertinens. Related to the matter in hand. 

Teneo, to hold. 
im. Placable, Placabilis. That may be appeased. Placo, 

to appease. 
im. Politjr, gr. The form of civil government. Polis, 

a city. 
un. Popular, popularis. Beloved by, or pertaining to the 

common people. 
im. Probity, Probitas. Tried virtue, strict honesty. Pro- 
bus, honest. 
un. Precarious, Precarius. Uncertain, a doubtful tenure, 
ap. Proximate, Proximatus. Nearest, next, drawing 

near. Prope, near. 
un. Prejudice, Prejudicium, pre-judico. Prejudgment, 

mischief, damage. 


e. Radicate, Radicatus. To root or plant deeply. 

Radix, a root. 
en. Rapture, Raptus. Ecstacy, transport, a seizing by 

violence. Rapio, to snatch. 
e. Rasure, Rasura. The act of scraping or erasing. 

Rado, to scrape. 
un. Relent, Relentesco. To soften in any sense, less 

rigid. Lenis, mild. 
un. Refract, iiefractus. To break the natural course in 

rays of light. 
un. Repugnant, Repugnans. opposite, contrary, fighting 

against. Puguus, the fist. 
un. Resent, f. and ivesentio. To take ill, to be offended. 

Sentio, to think. 
un. Rescue, norm. To deliver, or save from, 
un. Reserve, Reservo, reservatum. To keep in store, 

held back in the mind, 
ir. Resolute, f. Having a fixed purpose, firm, bold, 

un. Reveal, jRevelo, revelatus. To disclose, to show or 

make known. Velo, to cover. 
un. Ridicule, Ridiculum. Contemptuous laughter. Ri- 

deo, to mock. 
in. Salubrious, Sahibrio. Favorable to health. Salus, 
safety, health. 
Servile, Servilis. Slavish, mean, fawning. Servus, 

a servant. 
un. Sophist, gr. and Sophista. A professor of philoso- 
phy, a captious reasoner. Sophia, wisdom. 
un. Special, Specialis. Particular, extraordinary. Spe- 

cio, to see. 
in. Suavity, Suavitas. Sweetness (in its sense), agree- 

ableness, pleasantness. — Suavis, sweet. 
un. Superfluous, Svperfiuus, Super-fluo. Overflowing, 

more than is needful. 
re. Suscitate, Suscito. To rouse, to call into life or action, 
un. Suspicious, Suspiciosus. Inclined to suspect. Spe 

cio, to look or see. 
un. System, Systema. An assemblage of things or prin- 
ciples adjusted, order. 
in. Timid, Timidus, Fearful, wanting courage. Timeo, 

to fear. 


in. Tolerance, Tolerans. The power or act of doing or 
permitting, 'folio, to bear or suffer. 

in. Tranquil, Tranquillus. Quiet, calm, peaceful. 

bi. UnijCorn, Unus-cornu. An animal with one horn. 

in. Urbane, Urbanus. Civil, courteous in manner. Urbs, 
a city. 

in. Utility, Utilitas. Usefulness (in the sense of the 
word). Utor, to use. 

e. Vacate, Vaco, vacuo. Empty, to make void. 

un. Vanquish, f. To conquer, overcome, or refute. 

un. Venerate, Veneror veneratio, venerabilis. To re- 
gard with veneration. Oro, to ask, venia, 

in. Vigilance, Vigilans. State of being awake, watchful. 

in. Vulnerate, Vulnero. To wound, to hurt. Vulnus, 
a wound. 


Eighth Exercise. 

N. B. In many words in and un, alternate, as «?igrateful 
and mgratitude — dis and mis, according to Dr. Webster, 
may with propriety be prefixed to many words where they 
are now omitted. The same is true of several other pre- 
fixes forming words not in common use. 

dis in. Abuse, f. To use ill, improper treatment, or 

perverted use. Ab and utor, to use. 

over super. Abound, Abundo, abundans. To possess much 
of, being very prevalent. Undo (obso- 
lete). Whence unda, a wave. 
un un 

ar de. Abrogate, Abxoga. To repeal or annul, by 

authority, to call from. Rogo, to beg, 

desire, ask. 
mis un. Accept, .Accepto. To receive what is offered, 

to consent or agree to. Capio, to take. 
un. Accomplish, f. To complete, gain, or finish 

entirely. Pleo, to fill. 



con dis. Ac,cord, f. To agree of our own will, har- 
mony of minds. Probably, Cor, cordis, 
the heart. 

in. Accurate, .Accuratus. In exact conformity, in 

the sense used. Cura, care. 

re un. Adjust, sp. To put in order, to make exact, to 

settle. Jus. legal or right. 

con in. Af,flict, .A/flic tus. To give pain to body or 

mind, to grieve. Fligo, to beat. 
co re under. Agent, Agens. An actor, an active cause or 

power. Ago, to do or drive. 
dis un. Agree,/. To be of one mind, to assent to or 

admit, concordant. Gratia, from gratus, 

dis un. Allow, f. To grant, yield, admit, approve, or 

afford. Laus, praise. 
inter pre. Al,lude, AVlxxAo, allusum, to refer to, to hint at. 

Ad and ludo, to play. 
e. Iljude (same root). To play upon by artifice, 

to deceive, or mock. 
de. Col,lude (same root). To play into the hand of 

each other, to conspire in a fraud, 
dis un. Allay. To make quiet, pacify, or appease. 

in un. Alter, Alter, alteratio. To change, or in 

any respect make different. Alter, 


be. A,muse, f. To entertain the mind, to occupy the 

attention. Musa, a song. 
re un. Annex, A?mecto. To join to, to affix, unite, or 


e pro. An,nounce, Ad-nuntio. To publish, proclaim to, 

or pronounce, to declare to. Nuncius, 
a messenger. 

semi super. Annu 4 al, f. and Annus. Yearly, returning every 



itn. Ap,peach. To accuse, to censure. Pecco, to 

do wrong. 
in un. Applicable. Suitable, fit, or proper. Plico, to 

in un. Approach, f. To come near, to advance, to 

have access. Prope, near. 
dis un. Array, norm. Order of troops, to deck, or dress 

in un. Art, Ars, artifex, artificis. Modification of 

things by human skill. 
in un. Articulate, Articulatus. To utter words dis- 

tinctly. Artus, a joint. 
re un. Assemble, f. To collect in numbers, to meet 

re un. Assert, ^ssertum. To affirm, aver, maintain, or 

defend. Sero, to sow or plant. 
re un. Attack, f. To assault or assail by force or 

un un 

re. A,venge, f. To take satisfaction for an injury. 

Vindex. a punisher. 

dis un. Avow, f. To declare openly, to own or confess. 

Voveo, to vow. 

in pre. Audible, Audibilis. That may be heard. Audio, 

to hear. 

dis ex un. Author, Auctor. The writer of a book, first 

re un. Baptize, gr. To administer baptism. 

over un. Bend, sax. To crook, incline or curve, to sub- 

out un. Blush, d. To redden in the cheeks, reddish 


de en. Camp, Campus. Ground occupied by an army, 

to camp. 

in. Cap ( able, f. Able to hold, having sufficient 

capacity. Capio, to hold or take. 

in re. Capacious, Capax, capacitas. Wide, large, ex- 

tensive. Capio. 

re un. Celebrate, celebro. To praise or distinguish 

Celebris, renowned, 


in un. Chaste, f. Pure, uncorrupted. Castus, pure. 

in un. Civil, Civilis. Relating to policy, sober, well- 

bred. Civis, a citizen. 

en out. Compass, f. To extend around, to attain or to 


re un. Compensate, Compenso. To make amends, to 

give an equivalent. Pendo, to weigh 
or pay. 

dis. Com,placent, Complacens. Civil, softness of 

manners. Placeo, to please. 

in un. Conclude, Coracludo, conclusum. To decide, 

finish, infer, or shut. 

dis pre. Concert, it. To contrive and settle an agree- 

in un. Condition, Conditio. Particular state of any 

thing. Do, to give or bestow. 

ir un 

re un. Conciliate, Concilio. To win, reconcile, or gain 
the affections. Concilium, a council. 
after mis. Conduct, sp. Good or bad actions, behavior. 
in un. Congeal, Ccmgelo, congelatum. To become 

stiff or thick. Gelu, frost. 

dis in. Congru ous, Congruus. Suitable, consistent, fit. 

Grus, a swan. 

de. Con,secrate, Consecro, consecratus. To set 

apart, or make sacred. Sacer, sacred. 

anti non. Contagion, Contagio. Communicating by 
touch, a touch. Tango, to touch. 

in un. Control, f. To keep under check, to restrain, 

or govern. 

con in. Corporate, Corporatus. United in a body. Cor- 
pus, a body. 

in. Corporeal. Having a material body, opposed to 

spirit. Corpus. 

in un Corrupt, Comiptus. To vitiate in any sense 

Rumpo, to break. 

dis en. Courage, f. Bravery, valor, boldness. 


en tin. Damage, f. Any hurt, injury, or loss, to harm, 

be un. Dazzle, sax. To overpower with light, to blind 

by glare, 
dis re 

em. De,bark, f. To land from a ship, boat, &c. 


in. Debt, Debitum. Whatever is owing from one 

to another. Debeor, to be due. 

in. Decent, Decens. Becoming in words, be- 

havior, dress, or appearance. Decet, 
it becomes. 


en. Dear, sax. High price, beloved or precious. 

in un. Decide, Decldo, decisum. To end or deter- 

mine, to fix. Caedo, to cut or slay. 

de in. Decorous, Decorus. Decent, suitable, or be- 

coming. Decet, becoming. 

in un. Define, DeCmo, Definitio. To determine or 

mark the limit, to bound. Finis, the end. 

re un. Deliver, f. To free, release, surrender, utter, 

or pronounce. Liber, free. 

ante post. Deluge, Deluvium. An overflowing of water, 
to overwhelm. 

in un. Demonstrate, Demonstro. To prove beyond a 

doubt. Monstro, to show. 

un un 

im. De,plore, Deploro. To lament, bewail, to mourn, 

to cry out. 

pre. Destine, Destino, Destinatio. To ordain, ap- 

point, or devote. 

en in. De,velop, f. To uncover, disclose, or unravel. 

Velo, to cover or conceal. 

in un. Discern, Discexno. To separate by the eye or 


in un. Discreet, f. Prudent in avoiding evil, cautious, 

not rash. Cerno, to discern or sift. 

re un. Discuss, Zh'scussum. To debate or agitate by 

argument. Cutio, from quatio, to shake. 


in un. Dispute, Disputo, disputatio. To contend in 

argument, strife. 


in over. 

dis un. 

pre super. 

mis un. 

Dis,till, DistiWo, distillatio. To flow in drops, 
or extract by heat. Stilla, a drop. 

Edify, Edifico, edificatus. To build, to instruct 
or improve the mind. Aedes, a house. 

Ef,face, f. To blot out, erase, to impair any im- 
pression. Ex and facies, the form. 

Eleg ( ant, Elegans. Polished, polite, refined, 

Embarrass, f. To perplex, entangle, or render 

Emin 4 ent, £minens. High, lofty, exalted in 
rank. Mineo, to hang over. 

Employ, f. To occupy the time, or in any way 
be engaged. 

ad de. 

per. En,dure, f. To last, remain, undergo Durus, 

in. Evitable, isvitabilis. That may be shunned. 

Vito, to shun. 

super self. Exalt, f. To raise high, to elevate. Altus, high. 

in un. Exhaust, .Exhaustum. To draw out, to drain, 

to use the whole. Haurio, to drain or 


Ex,hort, jBxhortor, exhortatus. To advise, 

caution, or urge by words. 
Expedient, isxpediens. Suitable for the pur- 
pose, useful. 
Experience, .Experiens. Series of trials, ob- 
servation. Peritus, tried. 
Explain, .Explano, explanatum. To make plain, 

expound. Planus, smooth. 
Expose, f. and isrrpositus. To lay open, un- 
cover, to make liable, to offer. Ex and 
pono, to lay out. 
Fabricate, Fabrico. To frame, construct, form, 

in un. 

in un. 

in un. 





con de. 





i n 



in un. Fail, f. To become deficient, to decay, de- 


de in. Fame. Fama. Public report, renown, rumor. 

mis un. Fashion, f. The make or form of any thing, to 

dis. un. Favor, f. Kind regard, or act, to resemble, to 

befriend. Faveo, to favor. 

counter un. Ferment, Fermentum. To heat, or work, to 
set in motion. 
Fertile, f. and Fertilis. Fruitful, rich, inventive. 
Felicity, Felicitas. Happiness, blessedness, 
prosperity. Felix, happy. 

Finite, Finitus. Having a limit. Finis, the end. 
Flagrant Flagrans, flagratum. Burning, ardent, 

Fold, sax. A pen, enclosure, a plait, to double. 
Frequ t ent, Frequens. Often, to be often at. 
Frigid, Frigidus, refrigero. Cold, dull, wanting 
zeal. Frigus, cold. 
in un. Frugal, Frugalis. A prudent use of any thing. 

over un. Fruit, f. Whatever the earth produces, a con- 
sequence. Fructus, fruges, fruit. 

af Fright, sax. Sudden fear, terror. 

re un. Gain, f. To obtain or win — used in various 


con sub. Globe, Globus. A round ball or sphere, 

in un. Grateful, Gratus. A due sense of benefits 

be un. Grudge, w. To envy or murmur, hatred, 

be. Guile, f. Craft, cunning, artifice, 


in. Heritable. Capable of being inherited. Haeres, 

an heir. 
in super. Human, Humanus. Belonging to man. 
in un. Humane, Humanus. Having feelings peculiar 

to man, kindness. 



re un. 

mis un. 
dis un. 


in un. 

dis re un. 

self un. 




il over. 




mis un. 
be un. 
non un. 

im un. 


Im,pair, f. To make worse in any sense. Paro, 
to make or shape. 

Importune, import unus. To request with ur- 
gency. Porto, to carry. 

Improve, norm. To make better in any sense. 

Ingenuous, Ingenuus. Open, frank, fair, noble. 

In,list. To enter military service, to engage in. 

Interpret, Interpreter, interpretatio. To explain 
words, or any thing. 

Irritate, Irrito. To excite anger, to fret, excite 
heat. Ira, anger. 

Joint, f. The joining of two or more things. 
Jungo, to join. 

Justify, Justus-facio. To make just, to defend. 

Lacerate, Lacero. To tear or rend with vio- 

Large, Largus. Big, wide, copious. 
License, Licentia. Leave or permission, to 
grant. Liceo, to be lawful. 

Literate, Literatus. Learned, lettered, scien- 
tific. Litera, a letter. 

Liberal, Liberalis. Of a free heart, generous 
Liber, free. 

Lure, f. Any enticement held out, to entice. 

Mancipate, Mancxyo. To enslave, to bind. 
Manus and Capio. 

Manage, f. To conduct, govern, or direct. 

Mangle, dan. To cut with a dull instrument. 

Manufacture, f. and Manu-facio. Any thing 
made by hand. 

Malleable, f. Malleatus. That may be drawn 
out or hammered. Malleus, a ham- 


com lm. 
im un. 
im inter. 


pre un. 

im un. 
all un. 
a im. 

re un. 

im un. 

ac disac 

im over. 


im un. 

equi sub. 



de inter. 

equi un. 

Material, f. and Materia. Consisting of matter, 

Mechanic, Mechanicus. A person skilled in 

the arts. 
Mediate, f. Middle, to interpose, to effect a 

union. Medius, the middle. 

Meditate, Meditor. To contemplate, intend or 

Melody, gr. Agreeable succession of sounds. 
Mercy, f. Mildness, favor, kindness. 
Method, Methodus. Suitable arrangement, 

Mind, sax. Intellect, purpose, to fix the 

thoughts, to obey. 
Mitigate, Mitigo. To alleviate, abate, or calm. 

Mitis, mild. 

\ ** ,|! Modus-facio. Manner of existing, 

method, form. 
Modest, Modestus. Sense of propriety, not bold. 
Modus, a manner. 

Mortal, Mortalis. A human being, deadly, sub- 
ject to death. Mors, death. 

Mortify, f. Mors facio. To destroy vital func- 
tions, to humble. 

Multiply, Mw/^plico, multiplicatus. To increase 
as numbers. Multus and Plico. 

Munerate, Munero, muneratus. To reward or 
recompense. Munus, a gift. 

Narrate, Narro. To tell, rehearse, relate, or 

Nation, Natio. A body of people under one 

government. Nascor, to he born. 
Necessity, iVecessitas. That which cannot be 




in ob. Noxious, Noxius. Hurtful or pernicious, guilty, 


dis un. Oblige, f. To constrain, to please, or do a 

favor. Ligo, to bind. 
de un. Obstruct, Obstructum. To block up, hinder, or 

co pre. Option, Optio. Power of choosing, choice 

Opto, to choose. 

co in sub. Ordinate, Ordinatus. Regular, methodical, a 

line. Ordo, order, rank. 
ab un. Origin, Origo. First existence, foundation, 

re un. Pacific, Pacificus, pacificatio. Making peace, 

calm or tranquil. Pax and Facio. 
dis im. Parity, f. Equality, like state or degree. Par, 


im em. Pass ( ion, Passio. An excitement of the mind, 

ardour, suffering. Patior, to suffer. 

im un. Patron, Patronus. One who countenances or 

supports. Pater, a father. 

bi sub. Quadrate, Quadratus. A square, four equal 

sides. Quatuor, four. 

fore mis. Quote, f. To cite as a passage from another 
author, to name. 


en out. Rage, f. Violent anger, fury, to rage. 

ir un. Redeem, .Rcdimo. To purchase back or ran- 

som. Emo, to buy. 

dis un. Regard, f. To look towards, observe — has 

many senses. 

ir un. Revere, .Reveror. To regard with fear mingled 

with respect. Vereor, to fear. 

im un. Perish, f. To die, in a state of decay. 

im un. Plausible Plausibilis. That may be applauded. 


dis un. Please, Placeo. To excite agreeable emotions, 

to satisfy. 


com counter. Petition, Petitio. Requestor prayer, to make 
request. Peto, to ask or seek. 

im un. Polite, Politus. Courteous, refined, smooth, 

gr. Polis, a city. 

im un. Precise, Praecisus. Exact, nice or formal. 

Caedo, to cut. 

counter un. Practice, f. Customary actions, to do fre- 

im un. Prepare, Praeparo, praeparatum. To fit, adapt, 

make ready. 

im un. Prosper, Prospero. To favor, render success- 

ful, to thrive. Spes, hope. 

im un. Provide, Provideo, Provisum. To procure be- 

forehand, to foresee. Video, to see. 

im juris. Prudence, Prudentia. Wisdom applied to prac- 
tice, caution. 

re un. Publish, Publico, publicatio. To make public, 

utter, or print a book. Populus, the 

im un. Pure, Purus. Free from all impurities, genuine. 

ir un. Remedy, Remedium. That which cures a dis- 

ease, or counteracts evil. 

ir un. Reproach, f. To censure, upbraid, or treat with 


after mis. Report, .Reporto. To bear back an answer, 
something told, 

pre. Re,side, iZesido, residens. To have a settled 

abode, to dwell. Sedeo, to sit or fix. 

super. Re, vise, Revisus. To review, to re-examine, or 

correct. Video, to see. 
cor out un. Rival, Rivalis. One striving for an object in 

all un. Sanctify, Sanctifico, sanctificatio. To make 

holy, to set apart. Sanctus and 

in non. Sane, Sanus. Sound, healthy, having reason, 

in un. Satiate, Satiatus. To fill, satisfy, or glut. Satis 




dis un. Satisfy, Satisfacio. To gratify the wants, sup- 

ply, pay, convince. Satis and Facio. 

demi. semi. Savage, f. Wild, untamed, uncivilized, cruel, 

in per. Scrutiny, f. and Inscrutabilis. Close search, 

minute inquiry. Scrutor, to search. 

in un. Separate, /Separo, separabilis. To disunite, 

divide or part. 

a un. Shame, sax. Painful sensation arising from a 

sense of guilt. 

con in. Signify, Significo, significatio. To express 


in un. Sincere, Sincerus, sinceritas. Pure, unmixed, 

real, not feigned. Sine, without, cera, 
wax, or pure, unmixed. 

dis un 

en. Slave, dan. One held at the will of another, a 

servant, mean fellow, 

e. Spouse, f. One engaged in wedlock, to wed. 

in un. Stable, Stabilis. Fixed, steady, durable. Sto, to 


be. Strew, goth. To scatter or spread. 

in. Subordinate, Sub-ordinatus. Inferior in the 

sense as used. Ordo, rank or order. 

con. Subsequent, Subsequens. Following in time 

or order. Sequor, to follow or pursue. 

dis. Suc,cinct, Swccinctus, Brief, compressed, tuck- 

ed up. 

in un. Support, Supporto. To bear, sustain, uphold, 


de per. Sulphur, f. A simple combustible substance, 


all re. Survey, norm. To take a view of, to measure, 

examine. Video, to see. 


re. Sur,vive, f. and Svpervivo. To outlive, to re- 

main alive. 


in un. Susceptible, Suscipio. Capable of some addition, 

tender, nice sensibility. Capio, to take. 

de Spoil, Spolio, spoliatio. To plunder, rob, cor- 

rupt, ruin, that which is taken. Spolium. 

at un. Taint, Tingo. To imbue, corrupt, stain, infect, 

or poison. 

in sub. Tangible, Tango, tangens. To perceive by the 


re un 

at. Tempt, f. and Tentatus. To incite to evil, to 

entice. Tento, to try. 

in un. Tenable, f. Teneo. That may be held or main- 


at ex. Tenu t ous, Tenuis. Thin, small, minute. 


in. Testate, Testatus. Having left a will. Testis, 

a witness. 
be fore. Token, sax. A sign or mark, 
mis un. Torture, f. and Tortor. Extreme anguish of 

body or mind, to inflict pain, 
over un. Thwart, dan. To transverse, to cross or oppose, 
in un. Tractable, Tractabilis. That may be easily 

lead or taught. Tracto. 
mis un. Translate, Translatus. To interpret, to bear 

from one place to another. Trans- 

dis re. Union, f. and Unus. The act of joining, a con- 

dis re. Unite, Unitus. To put together, join, or cause 

to adhere. 
in. Valid, Validus. Having sufficient strength, 

powerful. Valeo, to be strong. 
de e. Vapor, Vapor. Invisible elastic fluid, steam. 

e un. Ventilate, Ventilo. To fan with wind, to make 

a free passage. Ventus, the wind. 

per un 

ad. Venture, f. A hazard, undertaking, to dare. 

Venio, to come. 
con di. Verge, Vergo. To tend downwards. 



in Ull. 

semi un. 
dis mis. 


inter in. 

mis un. 


all un. 
in be. 

Vigor, Vigor. Active strength, energy. 
Violate, Violo, Violabilis. To injure, hurt, or 

Vitrify, Vitrum-facio. To convert into glass. 
Vouch, norm. To call to witness, to declare, or 

warrant. Voco, to call. 

Wail. To lament. 

Weave, sax. To unite threads in making cloth, 

to insert. 
Wed, sax. To marry or espouse. 

Witch, sax. A woman practising sorcery, to 

Worth, sax. Value, importance. 
Wrap, sax. To wind, fold, enclose. 

Ninth Exercise. 

re un. Accelerate, .Accelero. To quicken, to hasten in 

any sense. Celer, swift. 
super un. Add, Ad&o. To set or put together, to unite, 

co in. Ad,here, ylJhaereo, adhaesum. To stick or 

cleave to gether, to unite. Haereo, to stick. 
re un. Adjourn, f. To defer to another day, or for an 

re un. Adopt, A cfopto. To take a child or person as an 

heir, to select and take. Opto, to choose. 
all un. Adore, Adoxo, adoratio. To worship or pay 

divine honors to. Oro, to speak or pray, 

os, the mouth. 
mis un. Aim, ir. To point at with a missive weapon, to 

attempt to accomplish, a design, 
dis un. Anchor, Anchora. An iron instrument to hold a 

ship at rest in the water, to moor. 


dis un. Anoint, f. To pour oil upon, to smear with 

over un Anxious, Anxius. Greatly concerned, solicit- 
ous. Ango, anxi, to trouble. 

in. Apposite, ./Ippositus. Suitable, fit, well adapted. 

Pono, to place. 

in sub. Aquatic, Aquaticus. Pertaining to water. Aqua, 


in un. Apt, Aptus. Fit, suitable, inclined, ready. 

in un. Arable, Aro. Fit for plowing or tillage. Aro, 

to plow. 

auto. Aristo,cracy, gr. A form of government where 

the supreme power is in the nobility. 

re un. Assault, f. and Ad-salio. An attack with vio- 

lence, to attack. Salio, to leap. 

in un. Auspice, Auspicium. Omens, augury, good or 


over un. Ballast, sax. Heavy matter, as stone placed in 
the bottom of a ship, to make any thing 

self un. Banish, f. To condemn to exile, to be com- 
pelled to leave one's country, 

male. Bene,volent, Benevolens. Wishing well, good- 

will, kindness, charity. Volo, to will. 

mis un. Bestow. To give, confer, or impart, to dispose of. 

co un. Bishop, sax. A spiritual overseer, an elder or 


out un. Boast. To brag in speech, to glory, to exalt 

one's self. 


ab. Breviate. To shorten. Brevis, short. 

dis ex. Calceated, Calceatus. Shod, fitted with shoes. 

Calcus, a shoe, calx, the heel. 

re un. Captor, Capio. One who takes as a prisoner, or 


mis over. Carry, f. To bear, convey, or transport, to con- 

a bi hydro. Cephalic, gr. Pertaining to the head. 


a mono. 

Chromatic, gr. 


Chronica], gr. 



Con,fess, f. T< 


Relating to color, a kind of 
Continuing a long time, as a 

n a fault or crime, to avow 

or acknowledge. Fateor fassus, for 

fessus, to confess. 
hetero homo. Con, gener, Congener. Of the same kind or 

mis un. Contrive, f. To invent, contrive, or plan, 
mis un. Council, f. An assembly of men to advise the 

chief magistrate, an assembly of prelates, 

ex. Crescent, Crescens. Increasing, growing. 

self un. Deceit, \ Decipio, deceptio. Ensnaring, mis- 
self un. Deceive, ) leading or fallacy, to cause to 

err, to cheat. Capio, to take. 

be un. Deck. To clothe, dress, adorn, embellish. 

a dis. De,part, f. and Pars. To go or move from, to 

leave, to vary from. 

re sub. De,sultory, .Desultorius. Leaping or passing 

from one thing or subject to another. 
De-salio, to leap from. 

all un. Devastate, Devasto. To lay waste, ravage, to 


all un. Devour, Devoro. To eat with greediness, to 


in un. Diminish, Dnninuo, diminutio. To lessen, to 

impair. Minus, less. 

re tran. Dis,silient, Zh'ssiliens. Starting asunder, open- 
ing with force. Salio, to leap, dis, apart. 

all un. Divine, Divinus. Pertaining to the true God, 

godlike, a minister of the gospel, to 

self un. Educate. .Educo. To bring up, as a child, to 

in un. Exaggerate, Exaggero. To heap on, to accu- 

mulate, to heighten or enlarge. Gero, 
to bear. 


m un. 

sub under. 

over re. 

re un. 
in un. 

pre un. 
un in. 

contra sub 


re un. 

il preter. 

e inter, 
anti biblio. 
fore un. 

Expiate, .Expio. To atone for, to make re- 

Faction, f. and Facio. A party in political so- 
ciety, tumult, discord. 

Flourish, Floresco. To thrive or grow luxuri- 
antly, to increase — various senses. Flos, 
a flower. 

Fortify, Fortis and Facio. To make strong. 

Fracture, Fractura. A breach in any body, a 
rupture. Frango, to break. 

Fraternal, Fraternws. Brotherly, pertaining to 

Imbibe, Imh'iho. To drink in, to absorb. Bibo, 
to drink. 

Imitate, Imitatus. To follow in manner, to 
copy after, or counterfeit. Imitor, to 

Indicate, 7«dico. To show, point out, or dis 
cover, to tell. 

In,herit. To take by descent from an ancestor. 

Haeres, an heir. 
Install, f. To place in office, to invest with any 

Legal, Legalis. According to law, in conformity 

to law. Lex, law. 
Lope. To leap, a long step, to run. 
Maniac, gr. and Maniacus. Mad, or a madman. 
Mention, Mentio. To speak or name, a hint, to 

state. Memor, mindful. 

phil. Mis,anthropy. gr. Hatred of mankind, 

philo un. Music, Musica. Melody or harmony of sound. 
Musa, a song. 

hetero. Ortho,dox, gr. Sound in the Christian faith. 

re un. Pack, d. A bundle or load, to send in haste, to 

close, to put together in order. 
im un. Paradise, gr. The garden of Eden, a place of 



im inter. Parley, f. To confer with, on some point of 
mutual concern, to confer with an 

dys eu. Peptic, gr. Promoting digestion. 

re un. Peruse. To read with attention, to observe. 

Per and utor, usus. 

de. Picture, Pictura. A painting, a likeness drawn 

in colors. Pingo, to paint. 

self un. Preserve, f. and Servo. To keep safe from in- 

jury, to uphold, to save. 

multi omni. Present, Praesens. Near, in company, some- 
thing given. Prae and ens, being be- 
fore, or sentio. 


di. Pre.varicate, Praevarico. To quibble or shuffle, 

to play foul play, to evade, pervert, or 
corrupt. Varus, crooked legs, unlike. 

anti un. Prophecy, gr. A foretelling or predicting some- 
thing to come. 

Quit, f. To leave, to depart from, to free or 


ar. Range, f. To set in a row, to dispose in classes, 
to rove. 
Record, Recordor. To register or write in, a 

register of facts. 
Relish. Pleasing taste, liking, appetite, to de- 
light in. 
ir un. Relieve, ) f. Removal in whole or in part of any 

Relief, ) evil of body or mind, to free 

ir un. Renown, f. Fame, celebrity, to make famous. 


in. Re.novate, ivenovo. To renew, to restore to the 

first state. Novus, new. 
re un. Salute, Saluto. To greet, to hail, to address 

with kind wishes. Salus, safe. 






ir un. 




ami un. Scripture, Scriptura. A writing, the Old and 
New Testament, any thing written. 
Scribo, to write. 

en un. Seal, sax. A piece of metal to make an im- 

pression on wax or other things, to 
close, to fix a seal. 

mis un. Send, sax. To throw, cast, or thrust, to cause 
to be conveyed. 

re un. Seize, f. To lay hold on suddenly, to take pos- 

session by force. 

re tran. Splendor, Splendor. Great brightness, elegance, 
pomp, show. Splendeo, to shine. 

self un. Subdue, Sub do. To conquer by force, to 
overcome, to soften. 

re un. Summon, Sub-moneo. To cite or notify by 

authority to appear at some place, to 
call up, excite. 

in inex. Superable. That may be overcome. Super, 

a dis. Sunder, dan. To part or divide, to separate. 

pyro poly. Technics, gr. and Technicus. The doctrine of 
arts in general. 

con inter. Texture, Textura. The act of weaving, a web. 
Texo, to weave. 

mis un. Train, f. To draw along, to exercise, to break 
or tame. 

all un. Triumph, Triumphus. A pompous ceremony 

on account of a victory, to obtain vic- 
tory, to insult. 

in un. Utter, sax. To speak or express words, to dis- 


equibimulti. Valve, Valvae. A folding door, a lid or cover, 
re un. Vindicate, Vindico. To defend, justify, or sup- 

port, to avenge, to assert. Vindex, a 

equi uni. Vocal, Vocalis. Having a voice, music made 
by the voice. Voco, to call, from vox, 
the voice. 



Tenth Exercise. 

en un. Able, norm. Having sufficient power of body 

or mind for the object, eminently quali- 

anti poly tri. A.pode, gr. An animal that has no feet, as 

mis un. Become, sax. To pass from one state to another, 
to be fit or suitable. 

self un. Charity, gr. and Charitas. Benevolence, alms, 

de hydro. Carbon, Carbo. Pure charcoal, a simple body. 

super sub Celestial, Caelestis. Heavenly, relating to 
un. heaven. Caelum, heaven. 

mis re un. Choose, sax. To pick out, to select or prefer. 

pre re un. Consult, Co?*sulto. To seek the opinion of 
others, to plan or devise. Consulo, per- 
haps salio, to leap. 

dia hyper Critic, gr. A person skilled in judging of the 

un. merit of literary works, an examiner or 


semi un. Calcine, f. To reduce to fineness like dust. 
Calx, calcis, chalk-stone. 

in un. Cure, Curo. To heal as a disease. Cura, care. 


re. Con,fute, Confuto, confutatio. To disprove or 

show any thing to be false. Futo (ob- 
solete), to blame. 

re un. Compile, Cowipilo, compilatio. Literally to 

steal or pillage, but now means to col- 
lect pasaages from other authors into 
a book. Pilo, to pilfer. 

re un. Convey, Conveho. To carry or transport. 

Veho, to carry. 

over in. Curious, Curiosus, curiositas. Strong desire for 
novelty, accurate, nice. Cura, care. 


re un. 
mis un. 

in un. 

mis un. 
dis un. 
dis un 


Capitulate, Capitulatus. To surrender an army, 
to repeat over. Caput, the head. 

Conjecture, Conjectura. A throwing together, 
a guess or surmise. Jacio, to cast or 

Compare, Comparo, compara-bilis-tivus. Like- 
ness or agreement, to liken one thing to 
another. Par, equal. 

Construe, Construo, constructum. To translate, 
to interpret, to arrange the words. 

Courteous, f. Polite, well bred, civil. Curia, 
a senate house. 

Cumber, dan. To load, check, or embarrass, a 

all sub. Chant, f. A song, to sing or celebrate in song. 

Cano. to sing. 
mis un. Derive, Derivo, derivatio. To draw or receive 

as from a source or origin. Rivus, a 

ad fore. Doom, sax. To judge or condemn, 
re un. Draft. A drawing of men from a military band, 

to delineate, 
over in. Diligent, Diligens. Steady in application, not 

all un. Dread, sax. Great fear or apprehension of evil 

or danger, awe, terror, to fear, 
over un. Drive, sax. To impel, to urge forward by 

decern Duum,vir, Duo and vir. One of two Roman 

trium. officers, united in the same public func- 

counter un. Declare, Declaro, declaratio. To tell explicitly, 

to make plain. Clarus, clear. 
in un. Discover, f. To lay open to view, to reveal or 

find out. 

aristo theo. Democracy, gr. Demos, the people, and Cratos. 
power, hence a government by the 


dis un 

in re. De,cline, Declino, declinatio. To lean down- 

wards, a tendency to decay. Clino, to 
bend or lean. 

re. De,mise, f. To transfer or convey by lease or 

will. De and mitto, to send down. 

dis un. Enthrall or Inthrall. To enslave. 

super un. Excel, EocceUo. To go beyond, to surpass 
Celsus, lofty. 

counter self Evidence, .Evidentia. Proof in support of some 

in. thing. Video, to see, e, out. 


para pro. Epidepsy, gr. The falling sickness, because 
the patient falls suddenly. 

ab in un. Err, Erro. To wander from a right way, to 
deviate, to mislead in any sense. 


de over. Fatigue, Fatigo, fatigatus. To tire, weary, or 


re super. Fine, f. and Finis. Very small, minute. (Many 

re un. Foment, Fomentum. To apply warm things, to 

promote excitement. Foveo, to keep 

arch co un. Found, Fundo, fundatus. To lay the basis or 

foundation, to begin. Fundus, land or 

in un. Feasible, f. That may be done or tilled prac- 

ad af. Filiation, f. The relation of a son to a father, 

Filius, a son. 
con. ag. Glomerate, Glomero. To wind into a ball, to 

gather. Glomus, a ball. 
mis self Govern, f. To direct or control by authority, 
un. to administer the laws. Guberno. 

all un. Important, f. Weighty, of great consequence, 




Eleventh Exercise. 

dis in non. Ability, f. Power of body or mind, skill, 
wealth. Habeo, to have ; Ability, for 

in re un. Access, Accessus. A coming near, approach, 

entrance. Cedo, to give place. 

inter in. Ac,cid t ent, Ad-cado, accidens. To fall to, or 

happen by chance. Cado, to fall. 

anti sub super. Acid, Acidus, acidulatus. Sour to the taste. 

dis pre un. Acquaint, f. To make fully or intimately 
known, to inform. 

fore mis un. Advise, f. To give counsel to, to offer an opin- 
ion, or give notice. Video, to see. 

ab con. Aggregate, Aggxego. To bring parts together 

into one mass. Grex, a herd. 
ab in un Alien, Alienus, alienatio. Not belonging to 

the same country, 
fore mis re. Allege, ^4/lego, allegatio. To declare, affirm, 

or assert. Lego-are, to impute. 
co dis mis un. Ally, f. To unite, form a relation, unite by 

treaty, an ally, 
dis non re un. Appear, ^Ippareo, apparens. To come in sight, 

obvious to the mind, 
mis re un. Apply, ^Ipplico, applicatio. To lay on, to fit, 

to be busy. 
in mis un. Appropriate, f. To assign to a particular use, 

most suitable. Proprius. 
dis fore un. Arm, Anna, armo, armamenta. To furnish 

with a weapon, a limb or branch, 
di inter in. A,sperse, ylspersus. To bespatter with false 

charges, to cast upon. Spargo, to scatter. 
dis un 

con dis. As,sent, Assensus, assentatio. An act of tho 
mind in agreeing to. Sentio, to think. 


con e re. A.vulsion, Avulsio. Tearing asunder violent- 

ly. Velio, to pull or pluck. 
self un un 

a re. Bate, f. To lessen, to remit or retrench, 

dis mis un. Belief, sax. Persuasion of truth, assent of the 
un mind. 

un for over. Bid, sax. To command, to offer, to direct, 
dis ex inter sub. Bi,sect, Bis-seco. To divide into two parts, 
to cut. 

Bitter, sax. Biting to the taste, sharp words, 

Burden, sax. A load, any thing oppressive. 

Call. To name or summon, to utter by the 

Calculate, f. To compute, or reckon, to intend. 
Calculus, a pebble, from calx, lime. 

Carnation, f. and Carnavium. Flesh-color or 
flesh., flesh. 

Cave, Cavea. A hollow place, to make hol- 
low. Cavus, hollow. 
inunpre over. Caution, Cautio. Prudence in regard to dan- 
ger. Caveo, to beware. 

as in un. Certain, f. Sure, undoubted. Certus, sure. 

be counter de Charm, f. Enchantment, secret influence. — 
un. Carmen, a song. 


pre ex in. Cogitate, Cogito, cogitatio. To think or 

in re un. Combine, f. To unite or agree, to link together. 

di3 un 

dis un 




over un. 

mis re un. 



ex i 

In Un. 


ex in. 

ac dis in. Commodious, f. Convenient, fit or proper. 
Modus, a manner. 

inter non. Commune, f. To converse, familiar inter- 

course, to meditate. Munero, to give, 

un from munus, a gift. 

ex re un inter Communicate, Commumco. To impart, re- 
in nor* veal, or partake. Munus, a gift. 


in re semi un. Compact, Compactus. Closely united, an 
agreement. Paciscor, to covenant. 

in non un. Comply, It. To yield to or comply with. — 
Plico, to be knit together. 

supra un 

de re un. Compound, Co/npono. To mix, to agree, a 
mass. Pono, to place. 

dis re un. Commend, Co/nmendo, commendatio. To 

praise, to give charge to. Mando. 

dis in un. Connect, Connecto. To link together, to join. 

in re un. Consider, Considero, consideratio. To fix the 

mind on, to think. Sidus, a star. 

anti pre un. Constitute, Constituo, constitutio. To fix, es- 
tablish, form, or make. Sto, to stand. 

all in un. Consume, Consumo, consumptio. To destroy 

or waste away slowly. 

dis mal un. Content, Cowtentus. Quiet, easy, satisfied, 
held within. Teneo, to hold. 

in un mis. Correct, Correctus. Right, made right, ac- 
cording to truth. Rego, to ride. 

con pro re un. Create, Creo. To produce something from 

ac re in. Criminate, Criminor. To charge with a crime, 

to blame. Crimen, a crime. 

counter under. Current, Currens. Flowing, circulating, gen- 
eral estimation. Curro, to run. 

in re circum. De,flect, Deflecto. To turn aside or deviate, 
to swerve. Flecto, to bend. 

in re un. Deliberate, XMibero. To consider or weigh 

in the mind. Liber, free. 

un re un 

counter re. De,mand, f. and De-mando. To ask or call 
for, a claim or debt. Mando, to give 
in re un orders. 

con. Dense, Densus. Close, compact, thick, 

in un 

De,precate, Deprecor. To pray against, to re- 
gret. Precor, to pray, from praeco, a 


all in self un. 

in equi. 

in pre re un. 

fore pre un. Design, Designo, designalio, to plan, project, 
intend, a scheme. Signum, a sign. 
Destroy, Destruo, destructio. To demolish, 
lay waste, or ruin. 

Differ, Dif kro, dif-ferens. Unlike, dissimilar, 
to quarrel. Fero, to bear ; dif. a part. 

Indifferent, (same root.) Unconcerned, feel- 
ing no interest. 

Digest, Zhgestus. A compendium of laws, to 
collect, to dissolve. Gero, to bear ; di, 
in apart. 

demi equi. Distant, Zh'stans. Remote in any sense, re- 
served. Sto, to stand, di, apart. 

' > Distinct, D/stinctus, a marked difference, 
ter in. J ' ' 

contra in mis Distinguish, Zh'stinguo. To ascertain the dif- 

un. ference, to be eminent. 

in mis un. Direct, .Directus. Straight, right, to point or 

aim. Rego, to rule. 
in sub un. Divide, Zh'vido, diviso. To separate, make 

partition, open. Viduo, to part, (obs.) 
counter with. Draw, sax. To pull along or move — variously 

con re sub. Duplicate, Duplicatus. Double, two fold, a 

copy. Plico, to fold. 

in i 


in un. 

dis pre re un. 

co in sub un. 

co non super 

co pre re un. 

in per. 

£f,fici 4 ent, _E/~ficiens. Causing or producing 
effects. Facio, to make. 

Eligible, f. and Eligo. Fit to be chosen, 
worthy of choice. Ex and lego, to choose. 

Engage, f. To promise or bind one's self in 
any matter. 

Equal, ^Equalis. Of similar dimensions, same 
rank. iEquus, equal. 

Essential, Essentialis. Necessary in the high- 
est degree. Essentia, esse, to be. 

Establish, f. To fix firmly, to settle or con- 
firm. Sto, to stand. 

E,vade, i?vado, evasum. To avoid, elude, es- 
cape, to march from. Vado, to inarch. 


pre re selfun. 

non un. 

co con. 

*an in pos ul. 
in un after 

in all. 

circum in re 
bene male 
mis un. 

ef inter pre re. 
ef per suf. 

dis un under, 
de dis un. 
in re un. 
dis in self un. 
ag de con un. 
all un 




de intro retro. 

mis un. 

en dis in un. 

Examine, Examino, examinatum. To inspect 

carefully. Examen. 
Execute, f. To perform, complete, to inflict, 

to kill. Ex-sequor, to follow. 

Extemporaneous, isxtemporaneus. Uttered 

without premeditation. Tempus, time. 
Ex,terior, Exterior, external, outward. 

E,vince, E vinco, evictum. To prove in a clear 
manner, to conquer. Vinco, to overcome. 

Flame, Flamma, fiammatus. Blaze, fire, ar- 
dor, rage. 

Flexile, Flexilis. Easily bent, pliant. Flecto, 
to bend. 

Factor, Factor. An agent for another person, 
a doer. Facio, factum, to do. 

Fortune, Fortuna. Success, good luck, wealth, 
destiny. Fors, chance. 

Fulg t ency, Fulgens. Brightness, splendor. 

Fume, Fumus, fumigatio. Smoke, vapor, 
rage, scent. 

Furnish, f. To supply in the sense as used. 

Garnish, f. To adorn, decorate, or furnish. 

Gather, sax. To bring together, to collect. 

Glory, Gloria. Brightness, lustre, splendor. 

Glue. f. Tenacious matter, to unite with glue. 

Grace, f. Favor, good will, to adorn. Gratus, 
grateful, thankful. 

Grade, Gradus, gradu, gradatio. Degree, 
rank or order. Gradus, a step. 

Guide, f. To direct or influence, a conductor. 

Harmony, Harmonia. Adaptation of parts, 

* An for ante, and ul for ultra. 



all dis un. Honor, Honor. Esteem, reputation, dignity, 

to revere. 
in un fore. Imagine, f. and Imago, imaginatio. To form 

an idea in the mind. Imago, an image. 
un in 

op re ex. Im,pugn, Zmpugno, impugnatus. To attack by 
words, or blame. Pugno, to fight. 

ap pro re retro. Im,pulse, Jwjpulsus. Force impressed, influ- 
ence, driven in. Pello, to drive. 

mis super un. Intelligent, Intelligens, intellectus, intellectu, 
endowed with reason, knowing, well 
informed. Intel for inter, and lego, to 

un ir un read or choose. 

at re. In,tent, 7«tentus. Having the mind, fixed, 

closely observing. Tendo, to stretch. 

dis self un. Interest, f. To concern, excite emotion, a 
share, premium. 

mis pre un. Instruct, //jstructum. To teach, educate, or 
un inform. Struo, to pile or build. 

all fore un. Know, sax. To perceive with certainty, to 

ap col il. Laud, Laudo. Praise, to praise in words. 

Laus, praise. 
di in semi. Lapidate, Lapido. To stone. Lapis, a stone. 

ab de ad. Legate, Legatus. The pope's ambassador, 
one sent. Lego, to send. 

circum col sub. Ligation, Ligatio. The act of binding. Ligo, 
to bind. 


en over. Light, sax. Rays of the sun, not heavy, small, 

to enkindle, 
be dis mis un. Like, sax. Equal, similar, to approve or 

extra il un. Limit, Limes, limitatio. Bound, utmost 

be dis im un. Mask, f. A cover for the face, to conceal or 



all im pre. Mature, Maturus. Ripe, perfected, to ripen, 
counter mis. March, f. and Mars. Third month, to move 

by steps, 
de pre un. Merit, Meritum. Worth, value, desert, to 

fore un pre 

ad pre. Monition, Monitio. Warning, admonitory. — 
Moneo, to admonish. 
anti de im Moral, Moralis. Relating to conduct, con- 
formed to rules. Mos, moris, a custom. 
in un 

dis sur. Mount, f. A mass of earth, to leap upon, to 

rise aloft. Mons, a mountain. 
circum in re Navigate, Navigo. To sail on water. Navis, 
un. a ship ; no, to swim. 


e un re in. Nerve, Nervus. A sinew, strength, firmness, 

ig en un. Noble, Nobilis, nobilitas. Great, exalted, 


an con de un. Note, Nota, notatio. A mark or token, notice, 
short letter, to observe. Nosco, to know. 

an con di in. Numerate, Numero. To count or reckon 
numbers. Numerus, a number. 

dis in. Obedient, Obediens. Submissive to au- 


non sub un. Obscure, Obscuro, obscuratio. To darken or 
cloud, not intelligible. 

mis non un. Observe, O&servo, observatio. To notice with 
attention, to remark. Servo, to preserve. 

in over un. Offend, Oyfendo, offensus. To displease, vio- 
late, or transgress. Fendo, to keep off. 

ex in under un. Office, O/ficium. Particular duty, a charge, 

mis pre self. Opinion, Opinio. Judgment formed by the 
mind. Opinor, to think. 

dis in re un. Organ, Organum. An instrument of action, 
that through which something is done. 

com im super. Pati,ent, Patiens. Enduring evils without 
murmuring. Patior, to suffer. 


all im un. 
ap im un. 

im preter un. 

dis mis un. 

equi im non 

dis pre re un. 

ex com ap. 

dis mis un. 


im mis. 

com ex super 


dis in over un. 

ir out un. 

cor mis un. 
dis fore mis un 

un ui 


Penetrate, Penetro, penetrabilis. To enter, 

pierce, or effect. 
Perceive, Percipio, perceptio. To have know- 
ledge by the bodily senses or mind. Per 

and capio, to take. 
Perfect, Perfectus. Finished, complete, to 

make skilful. Per and facio. 
Place, f. Any portion of space, to fix or 

Ponder, Pondero. To weigh in the mind, or 

otherwise to muse. Pondus, a weight, 

from pendo, to weigh. 

Possess, Possessus. To have just title, to 
hold or occupy. Esse, to be ; potis, 

Probation, Probatio. The act of proving, 
foretrial. Probus, honest. 

Reprobate, (same root.) Not enduring trial, 
one abandoned to sin. 

Profess, Processus. To make open declara- 
tion, to avow, declare, or acknowledge. 
Fateor and fessus, for fassus, to confess. 

Prison, f. A public building for the confine- 
ment of criminals. 

Purge, Purgo, purgatio. To cleanse, purify, 
or clear. 

Quiet, Quietus. Still, calm, peaceable. — 
Quies, rest. 

Reason, f. and Rationalis. Faculty of the 
mind, a cause, to argue. Reor, to 

Relate, iielatus. To tell or recite, to have 

reference to. Re and fero,latus. 
.Remember, norm, and Re-memoro. To gain 
an idea which had been in the mind be- 
fore. Memor, mindful. 
1 ir 

Re,peal, f. To recall, revoke or abrogate. 
Pello, for Appello, to call. 


after ir un. Repent, f. To feel pain for what was wrong, 

to change the mind. Poeniteo, to be 

sorry; poena, pain. 
ex ir mis un. Represent, .Repraesento, representatio. To 

show or describe. Re pre and ens 

(being) or sentio. 
ab di ex inter Re,scind, iJescindo, rescissum. To revoke, 
pre. annul, cut off, or rend asunder. Scindo, 

to rend or tear. 
cor ir un. Respond, Respondeo, responsum. To answer 

to or correspond. Spondeo, to promise. 
mis over un. Rule, w. That which has become a standard 

in any sense, to govern or guide, 
con en ex. Sanguine, Sanguineus. Red like blood, ar- 
dent, warm. Sanguis, blood. 
all re un. Search, f. To look over, explore, or seek, a 

seeking for. 
counter in un. Secure, Securus. Free from danger, to guard 

or make safe. Se and cura, separate 
un from care. 

con omni pre Science, Sciens, scientia. Knowledge in eve- 

un. ry acceptation. Scio, to know. 

counter in non. Sense, Sensus. That faculty which perceives 
— variously used. Sentio, to perceive. 

con dism inter. Seminate, Semino. To spread, sow, or propa- 
gate. Semen, seed. 

counter pre un. Signal, f. A sign given, memorable. Sig- 

un num. 

con un. Solid, Solidus. Hard, firm, sound, substantial. 

demi en hemi Sphere, Sphaera. An orb or globe, circuit of 

semi un. motion, rank. 

de in un. Spirit, Spiritus. Wind, air, breath, sold — 

mis various senses. 

con sub super. Structure, Structura. Act of building an edi- 
fice. Struo, to build, 
in un. Stimul ( ous, Stimulus. A goad or sting, that 

which rouses from languor. 

co in un. Suffer, Suf "fero. To bear pain, or undergo, 4 to 

allow. Suf, for sub, under ; and fero, 
to bear. 



en inter un. Tangle. To knit together confusedly, to en- 
mis self un. Teach, sax. To instruct, show, or instruct, 
at dis con un. Temper, Tempero, temperamentum. To mix 

so that one part qualifies the other, to 

soften the temper, 
countermisun. Time, sax. Tempus. Duration, to adapt, an 

age. Tempus, time. 
at con re. Tribute, Tributum. An annual sum of money 

paid. Tribuo, to give. 
en in inter un. Twine, sax. To twist, wind, unite, or cling to. 
ante proto* pre. Type, Typus. An emblem, symbol, model, to 

dis mis non un. Use, Usus. The act of employing, to employ. 

Utor, to use. 
in sub un. Vary, Vario, variatio, varietas. To alter in 
re un form, to deviate. 

in de di re. Vest, Vestis. An outer garment, to clothe. 

in pre re super. Vision, Visio. The act of seeing, something 
imagined. Video, to see. 

a ad in re. Vocation, Vocatum. A calling or employ- 
ment. Voco, to call, from vox, the voice. 

in non un. Attend, AttenAo, attentus, attentio. To go 
with, to wait on, to fix the mind. 

counter equi Balance. A pair of scales, equal weight, to 

un. settle accounts. 

im re un. Bound, norm. A limit or line, a leap or jump, 

the termination of any thing. 

non re un. Comfort, CWforto. To cheer or ease, relief 
un from pain, consolation. Fortis, strong. 

co in pro. Ex,hibit, Exhibeo. To present to view, to 

show or display, to manifest publicly, 
re re Habeo, to have, hold, or possess. 

en de in. Force, f. Strength, to compel, or use violence, 

en in re un. Graft, f. A small shoot, to join on or insert 
in, vigor, might, energy. 

Proto, first. 


in co un. 

mis in re un. 

re en il. 

mis over un. 
fore mis sur. 

re under un. 

counter mis 

contra extra ir. 

be mis un. 

ex inter semi. 

dis en. 

under mis sub 

at en mis. 

counter out ) 
over. S 

after mis out 
re under un. 
counter in out 
over under un. 

Habitant, Habilans, habitatio, habitu. A dwel- 
ler or inhabitant, a resident. 
Lay, sax. To put or place, to settle. 

Luminate, Lumino. To give light. Lumen, 

Match, sax. Combustible matter, an equal, a 

contest, to unite in marriage. 
Name, sax. That by which a thing is called, 

reputation, fame. Nomen, name, from 

nosco, to know. 
Purchase, f. To obtain property by paying 

an equivalent. 
Point, f. The sharp end of any instrument or 

body, to sharpen, aim or purpose. — 

Pungo, punctum, to prick or point. 
Regular, Regula. That which is conformable 

to any rule, periodical. Rego, to rule. 
Speak, sax. To utter words, to express by 

Ossify. To make or form bone, to convert 

into a hard substance like bone. Os, a 

bone ; facio, to make. 
Title, Titulus. An inscription put over any 

thing, an appellation of dignity. 
Tutor, Tutor. One who instructs children, to 

teach, to instruct. 
Tune, gr. A series of musical notes, to put 

in tune. 

Vote, Votum. Suffrage, a ballot or ticket. 

Write, sax. To form letters, to engrave or 

Work, sax. To perform any labor, or be en- 
gaged in, to move, a work — various 



Twelfth Exercise. 

All the prefixes are not added in this exercise which 
might be, but the number given is sufficient to answer the 
purposes of the work. 

counter un in pre sub Abs,tract, .Atatractio. To draw from, 
distinct from, to separate ideas, 
a summary or general view. — 
Traho, draw. 



de dis ex pro re sub. 

ante co counter 
re un 

en ex in over retro 
re sub trans under. 

Act, Ago, actus, actu. To perform or 
exert power, to behave or de- 
mean, any thing done, an action. 
Used in numerous senses. Ago, 
to do or execute. 



con circum 
sub super un 

de e in 
non re un 

ob pro 
retro sub. 

irun un 

Ad,duce, Ad&uco, adductum. To 
bring forward, to advance, to 
offer or present, to cite or name. 
Duco, to lead or draw ; ad, to. 

un pre mis pre un Ac,quire,Acquiro,acquisitum. To gain 
j^" ^T any thing in the sense of its use. 

Quaero, to ask, seek, or gain. 

ab con counter de e 
super un counter 

in inter ob 
in re un 

re sub tra. 

Adject, Ad']\c\o. To add or put as 

► one thing to another. Jacio, to 

cast or throio : ad to or unto. 


re sub un 

com dis de e 

in pre re 

extra inter intro im 

manu o per preter pre 
com ir un un un 

pro re sub trans. 

Ad,mit, >ldmitto, admissum. To 
suffer to enter, to allow, to re- 
ceive as true, to grant. Mitto, 
to send, dismiss, or send away. 


in dis dis re un dis mis un 



Af,fect, ^/Tectum, Affectatio, Ef- 
fectu. To act upon, to produce 
some change, to aim at, make 
a show. Facio, to make or 
dis mis un 

circum de noct per pre. 
bi mult oct tri un. 
dis fore non re un. 

co in mis pre un. 

all in un. 


un u 


Af,firm, Aj firmo, Affirmatio. To as- 
sert positively, to declare sol- 
emnly, to aver. Firmus, firm. 
Ambulate, Ambulo, Ambulatio. To 

walk from place to place. 
Angle, f. and Angulius. The place 
where two lines meet, a corner. 
Appoint, f. To fix or settle, to es- 
tablish, to ordain, to allot or 

Ap-prehend, ^prehendo, Appre- 
hensum. To seize on, to under- 
stand, to fear. Prehendo, to 
seize or take. 
Com-prehend, (same root.) To con- 
tain, include, or comprise, to 
conceive, take hold of. 
De,prehend, (same root.) To catch 
or take by surprise, to seize 
1 or detect. 

"Appreciate, f. To value or duly es- 
timate, to set a price or value 
on. Pretium, a price. 

con re un re 

de trans. A,scend, Ascendo, Assensura, from 

AdscanAo. To rise in the sense 
of the word, to move up. 
un pre mis un re 

re con counter As,sign, .4.ssigno, Assignatio. To 

un under sub. allot or appoint, to give a rea- 

son, to make over to another. 
Signum, a sign. 
un self re co un 

pre re. As,sume, .Assumo, Assumptio. To 

take upon one's self, to arro- 
all un un gate or claim. 

sus abs con de enter At,tain, f. To arrive at, to gain or 
ap un achieve, to compass, to come 

— re ^ to. Teneo, to hold. 

in un un 

con de ob pro un. At,test, .Attestor, Attestatus. To 

bear witness to, to certify or 
affirm, to call to witness, to 
un self un invoke. Testis, a witness. 

un im em de a. Base, gr. The bottom on which any 

thing stands, any thing vile or 
dis re un mean — various uses. 

era un. Body, sax. The frame of any animal, 

a mass, the main army, any 
solid substance : various uses. 

ac ante con pre pro Cede, Cedo, Cedens, Cessio. To 
pre un give up, yield or surrender, to 

rede" retro sue se ex. de P art > t0 resi g n > relinquish, 


all counter ex inter re Change, f. To alter or vary in any 
un. manner, to give one thing for 

another, alteration, 
dis mis over re sur un. Charge, f. To rush on or assault, 

expense, to load as a musket. 



de dis ex mis 





n pro un. 

dis fore in re 
en in over un. 



Claim, Clamo. To call for or de- 
mand, a demand. 

Close, f. To shut, to end or finish, 
to unite. Claudo, to shut. 

Cloud. To obscure by mist, a col- 
lection of vapor, to obscure or 
darken, to sully, 

Com,mand, Con-mando,Mandatum 
To bid or direct, to order or 

Com,plex, Cowrplexus. Composed 
of two or more parts, involved, 
difficult, an assemblage. Pli- 
co, to knit together. 

Compose, f. and Con-pono, Com 
positio. To form a compound, 
to put together words, to calm, 
settle, or arrange. Pono, to 
place, lay, or put. 

Re,pose, (same root.) To lie ut rest, 

to deposite, or trust. 

im super ex pre. De,pose, (same root.) To lay down, 
degrade, testify on oath, de- 
un pre pre re in un 

pro sup. Dis,pose,(same.)Toregulate,adapt, 

incline the mind, to place. 

counter re 



im per. 

de dis in 









de dis ex in inter oc 
pre re trans un. 

Con. cur, Concurro, Concursum, 
Concursio. To run together, 
to meet, to agree or join, unite 
in opinion. Curro, to run. 


dis per sue. Con,cussion, Cowcussio. Shaking 

by a stroke, a shock, impulse. 
Cutio, from quatio, to shake. 
semi im in 

tran per. Conspicuous, Conspicuus. Open to 

view, easy to be seen, obvious 
to the mental eye. Specio, 
to see. 

un all un 

re. Con.strain, f. To urge with power 

sufficient to effect, to hold by 
force, to necessitate. Stringo, 
to bind. 

contro inter intro trans 
un un ir un 

ad ob. Con ,ver t, Converto, conversum, con- 

versio. To turn to or with, to 
change from one state to an- 
other, to turn about, to undergo 
some change. Verto, to turn 
perm a re retro sub. or change. 

Conceive, Ccmceptio. To imagine, 
fore in mis pre super un. think, or form an idea in the 

mind, formation in embryo. — 
Capio, to take, hold, or receive. 

Count, f. To number or reckon, to 
esteem, to impute. 

Cumbent, Cumbo, cumbens. Re- 
clining or lying down. 

De,trude, Detrudo, detrusum. To 

thrust or push down with force. 

Trudo, to thrust or push. 

bene male vale inter Diction, Dictio. Expression of ideas 

self un un by words, style, manner of ex- 

contra" pre juris pression. Dico, to speak, say, 

r J or bid. 





re un. 




in de 





ex in pro re. 



com deexi/nproretrore.Dis,pel, Zh'spello, dispulsum. To 

scatter by force, to disperse, 
dissipate, or banish, to drive 
away. Pello, to drive. 

equi in mis 

dif. con in inter of De,fer, Dif i'ero, differens. To delay 
un un or put off, refer, to yield to an- 

pFe re trans. other's opinion, to postpone. 

Fero, to bear or carry. 
re un un non pre re un 

col se. E,lect, JElectus,-e-lego. To pick out 

or select, to choose, one cho- 
sen. Lego, to gather or choose. 

con in inter pre se. Ex, elude, T^xcludo, exclusum. To 

shut out or debar, to hinder 
from entering, to except. Clu- 
do or Claudo, to shut. 

co in non self post pre. Exist, .Existo. To be or have real 

existence, to live, remain, or 
endure. Sisto, to be set or to 

un super un co 

dis ob in pro sub. Ex,tend, iTxtendo, extensio. To 

stretch in any direction, to ex- 
pand or spread, to impart. 

un un 

con de dis re. Ex,tort, ^tortus. To draw or wrest 

from by force, to practice ex- 
tortion. Torqueo, to writhe. 

con dis pre trans un. Figure, Figura. Form or shape, ap- 
pearance, a statue or image — 

un various senses. Fingo, to make. 

be counter out re un. Fit. Suitable, to adapt to the use, 

to qualify, to furnish things 
af con in post pre suf Fix, f. To make stable, to put in 
trans un. order, to transfix or pierce. 

Figo, to fix. 


af circum con de ef in 
re super. 

dis in non un un 

con bi de equi 
mal mis multi omni 

re semi trans uni. 

af con circum dif ef in 
inter per pro self suf 
trans un. 

ir un 
de in pro re un. 

be en over under un. 

re non no 

as ex trans. 

circum com ex sup. 


circum de iritro per 
un dis ir un 

Flux, Fluxus, fluo. To flow, the act 
of flowing, to melt, the moving 
or passing of any thing. 

Form, Forma, formatio. External 
shape, arrangement, model 
pattern, to contrive or make : 
it has numerous applications. 

Fuse, Fusum. To melt, dissolve, 
or spread, to liquify by heat, 
to be reduced from a solid to 
a fluid. Fundo, to pour out. 

Generate, Genero, generatio. To 
propagate or produce, to cause, 
to bring into life. 

Gird, sax. To bind around or invest, 
to furnish or equip, to make 
ion fast. 

Im,port, 7/nporto, importatum. Any 

thing brought from another 

country, meaning of words — 

various uses. Porto, to carry 

un or bear. 

Implicate, Tmplico. To infold or in- 
volve, to entwine, to criminate. 
Plico, to fold, be knit together. 
re super 

pro su 





In,spect, /rcspectum. To look on 
or into, to view, to examine 
retro closely, to take the oversight. 

Specio, to see or look. 

re un 

u In, spire, Twspiro, inspiratum. To 
draw in the breath, to infuse 
into the mind a poetic spirit. 
Spiro, to breathe. 


un un lr 
ad con equi pro re. 

abs circum ex inter re. 

un un mis 

con mis per un. 

ag con di e pro trans 
retro re. 

mis un in non un 

circum de 

inter manu post pre pro 
sub super tran. 
circum con de e inter 
counter anti 

ad circum inter sub. 
co self re un 

en over un. 

un un 

ad all di extra fore pre 
in mis re un. 

ad con dis en inter in 
mis re se sub. 

In,voke, Invoco, invocatum. To ad- 
dress in prayer, to call upon 
for protection, to order. Voco, 
to call ; Vox, the voice. 

In,cision, /ncisio. A cutting, the 
act of cutting into, a gash. — 
Caedo, to cut or kill. 


In,form, /nformo,- informatio, and 
informis. To give intelligence, 
to instruct ; also, without form 
or shape. Forma, shape, figure. 

In,gress, /rcgressus. Entrance, or 
power of entrance, to go in, 
means of entering. Gradior, 
to go ; Gradus, a step. 

Inscribe, Jnscribo, inscriptum. To 
write in or on, to imprint, mark 
letters or figures, to assign or 
address to. Scribo, to write. 

In,volve, Jrcvolvo, involutum. To 
roll in or envelop, to imply or 
comprise, to blend or mingle. 
Volvo, to roll. 

Jacent, Jacens. Lying at length. 

Joy,f. Gladness, gayety, mirth, hap- 
piness, felicity, to rejoice. 

Judge, f. and Judex, judicatio, judi- 
cialis. A judicial officer with 
authority to hear and decide 
causes, rightly to understand 
and discern, to doom. 

Join, f. and Junctio. To connect or 
unite, to couple, to grow or 
adhere to — various senses.— 
Jungo, to join. 



ac fore inter self. 

be o over under un. 

col de e il inter preter 
pro re. 


bi col duo equi multi 
tri uni. 

col de inter multi out 
sub under un. 

ab al col dis e inter 

trans un. 

al circum col e inter. 

after all be over self un. 

e inter trans. 

com im mis over out un. 

com de e em inter re trans 

be com im inter un. 
pre mal un 

Knowledge. A clear perception of 
truth or any fact, learning, 
skill, acquaintance. Nosco, 
to know. 

Labor, Labor, laboro. To exert mus- 
cular strength, labor of body or 
mind, to work — various uses. 

Lapse, Lapsus. A sliding or falling, 
an error or fault, to glide along. 

Lateral, Lateralis, or latus. Per- 
taining to the side. 

Line, Linea, lineatio. A bound, ut- 
termost extent, length without 
breadth or thickness. Linea, 
a line. 

Locate, Locatus. To place in a par- 
ticular spot. Locus, a place. 

Locution, Locutio. A discourse or 
manner of speaking. Loquor, 
to speak. 

Love, sax. Affection — used in many 

Luc ( id, Lucidus, lucens. Shining, 
bright, clear. Lux lucis, light. 

Measure, f. The dimensions of any 
thing, limit, a portion, to com- 

Migrate, Migro. To remove or pass 
from one country to another, 
from place to place. 

Mingle, sax. To blend or mix to- 
gether. Misceo, to mix, mingle. 

ad anti ex sub un. Minister, Minister, ministratum. An 
agent to manage the business 
of another, pastor of a church, 
to supply or give. 


ad com %m inter over un. 


ad com counter e im re 
pro un. 

ante extra infra inter 
super supra, 
in un 

com im inter per trans. 

Mix, sax. Mistum, and ml*.. „ 
To unite, join, or mingle to- 
gether. Misceo, to mingle. 

Motion, Move, moveo, motum, motio. 

A moving or changing of place, 

to propose something. Moveo, 

to move. 
Mundane, Mundus, mundanus. Be 

longing to the wortd. 

Muta 4 ble, Mutabilis. Subject to 
change. Muto, to change. 

Nature, Natura. The universe, the 
essence of a thing — has nu- 
merous applications. Nascor, 
to be born. 

Nominal, Nominalis. Pertaining to 
a name. Nomen, a name. 

Number, Numerosus. A unit, a mul- 
titude, to count or reckon. — 

Ordain, Ordino, ordinatio. To invest 

with an office, to appoint or 

decree. Ordo, order. 

, , r . i Oxyde, > Any substance com- 

^P " l Oxide, J " 'bined with oxygen, but 

not sufficient to form an acid. 

Part, Pars, partitio. A portion of any 
thing, to separate — has various 
applications. Pars, apart. 

Pass, f. To move or go in any man- 
ner — variously applied. Pass- 
us, a step. 

Pay, f. To discharge a debt, reward, 

ap de equi im pro sus. Pend c ent, Pendens. Jutting or hang- 
ing over. Pendeo, to hang sus- 

con counter demi preter 

bi cog de multi pre pro. 
equi out re un. 

co fore in pre sub re. 

a after bi com counter de 
dis im un. 


im over re sur. 


non over re un. 


dis em over re un. 


dis im re trans un. 

em im inter mis re un. 

counter equi out over. 

ante ap circum counter 
im inter juxta op post 
pro re sup super, 
un re over 

ap dis mis over 
pro super under un. 

im omni pleni pre. 

all em im over. 


ap over under un. 

dis un un self ir 

ap im re 

dis semi un. 

bi cor ir octo uni. 

ab dis e inter ir pro. 

People, Populus. A community of 
persons,the mass of population. 

Plant, f. and Plantatio. A vegetable 

of any kind, to set or fix in the 

ground, to introduce. Planta, 

to plant. 
Plead, f. To argue or urge reasons, 

to discuss. 
Poise, w. Weight, gravity, to weigh 

or balance. 
Position, Positio. State of being 

placed, situation, a principle. 

Pono, to place or put. 

Portion, Portio. A part of any thing, 
to assign. Pars, apart. 

Potent, Potens. Possessing physi- 
cal or moral power, efficacious. 
Ens, being ; potis, able. 

Power, f. The ability of doing or 
effecting any thing — has very 
numerous applications. 

Prize. Tbat which is taken or 
obtained, to value or set a 
value on. 

Prove, sax. and Probatio. To try 
any thing, to evince, to expe- 
rience. Probo, to prove. 

Radiant, Radians. Darting forth 
rays of light. Radius, a ray 
of light or spoke in a wheel. 

Ruption, Ruptio. A breach or break. 
Rumpo, to break. 


un in ir non un 

as con de in per sub 

in over super under un. 

mis re sub super under 



as con dis. 

anti dis un 

as anti con dis 
in un. 

un in re un pre un re ir 

ab dis re 

in non. 

im mis over un 

per dis. 

con super tran un. 


Re,sist, Resisto. To stand against, 
to strive against, to baffle. — 
Re and sisto, or sto, to stand 

Saturate, Saturo. To supply to ful- 
ness. Satis, sufficient. 

Serve, Servio. To work for, to be- 
stow labor of body or mind, to 

Similar, Similis. Like or resem- 

Sociate, Socio. To mix with com- 
pany, fellowship, the union of 
persons. Socius, a companion. 

Solution, Solve, solvo, solutum. To 
loosen, remove or dissipate, 
to explain. 

Suasion, Suasum. The act of per- 
suading. Suadeo, to persuade. 

Substance, Substantia. Matter of 
any kind, the essential part of 
any thing. Sto, to stand ; sub, 

self all 



as co en in un. 
be mis par under un. 

after counter dis fore in 

Suffice, Suf ficio, sufficiens. — 
Enough, that which is equal 
to the end. Facio. 

Sure, f. Certain, firm, infallible. 

Take, sax. To get hold of, to re- 
ceive — this has numerous ap- 

Taste, f. To perceive by the tongue, 
to enjoy or relish any thing 


self pre in un in 
con in de ex. 

deca hexa nona octa 


after be fore un. 

dis re 
de en un. 

be dis mis in un. 

in out over self re under 

by counter inter re. 








Terminate, Termino, terminus. To 

bound, to end, to limit or put 

an end to. 
Tetra,gon, gr. A figure having four 

Think, sax. To occupy the mind, 

to imagine. 

Throne, Thronus. A royal seat, 
chair of state, (in Scripture,) 
sovereign power. 

Trust, dan. Confidence, credit, that 

which is committed to one's 

Value, f. Worth or price, any thing 

in high esteem. Valeo, to be 

strong or avail. 
View, f. To survey, to examine, to 

see, to consider. 
Ambient, .Ambiens. Surrounding. 

Am and eo, to go around. 
Anticipate, Anticioo. To take or 

act beforehand, foretaste. Ca- 

pio, to take ; anti, before. 
Affable, Affabilis, affabilitas. Easy 

of conversation or manners. 

For, fari, to speak. 
Acjdivity^cclivis. A slope or rising 

ground. Clivis, a slope. 
Cadence, Cadens. A fall of voice, a 

decline of sound. Cado, to fall. 
Corrigible, Corrigo. That may be 

set right or corrected. Rego, 

to rule. 
Docile, Docilis. Teachable, ready 

to learn. Doceo, to teach. 
Effable, J3/"fabilis. That may be 

uttered by words. For, fari, 

to speak. 



Thirteenth Exercise. 

self in self re 


co re under sub. 


mon hept olig tetr. 

pre counter. 

dec oct sept sex 
cent tri per. 
af ef dif re super 
counter un 

in circum 

mono tetra hexa 
poly deca. 

Ac,cuse. ^.ccuso. To charge with a 
crime or fault, to blame. Causa, 
a reason. 

Agent, Agens. Acting or an actor, 
that which has power to pro- 
duce an effect. Ago, to do or 

An,archy, gr. Want of power, a state 
of society where there is no 
supreme power. 

A,vail, Valens. To profit or turn to 

advantage, to effect the object. 

Valeo, to he strong. 
Bi.ennial, 5?ennis. Taking place once 

in two years. Annus, a year. 
Confluence, Co/ifluens. A flowing 

together, an assemblage. Fluo, 

to flow. 

Chord, gr. and Chorda. The string of 
a musical instrument, a right 
line, a string. 

in un 

ex de re. 

Com,plete, Cowipletus. Having no de- 
ficiency, perfect, to finish or end. *m 
Pleo, to fill. m " 

super mis. re in 

ad con 

contra intro super 


To come around, to 
gain by stratagem, 


inter pre e. 


multi re ab as 
dis equi uni. 

mono pro epi dec a. 
im un non self all in 

to delude. 

Venio, ventum, to 



ante post mis un. 


per multi ob per bi. 

imper in 
trans preter. 

poly auto 

astro auto bio 
biblio chiro cosmo 
chrono choro dia 

epi geo hydro 
litho mono ortho 
panto poly para 


Consonance. Agreement in sound, 
accord, congruity, consistency. 
Sono, to sound, from Sonus, a 

Dialogue, gr. and Dmlogus. A con- 
versation between two or more. 
Gr. Logos, a word or speech. 

De,ficient. Deficiens. Wanting, de- 
fective in any sense. Facio, to 

Date, Datum. The year, month, or 
day in which any thing was 
done, to date. Do, to give, da- 
tum, given. 

De,viate, Devius. To turn aside from 
the right or common way, to 
err. De, from, via, the way. 

Ex,it, Exit. Any departure, as from 
a stage or life, a going out. Eo, 
to go. 

Graphic, gr. and Graphicus. Per- 
taining to the art of writing, 
delineating, describing. From 
the Greek word grapho, to 
write or paint. 

stereo steno typo 
topo zoo. 


dei, a God. 
fratri, a Brother, 
homi, a Man. 
infanti, an Infant, 
matri, a Mother, 
parri, a Parent, 
regi, a King, 
sui, One's self, 
sorori, a Sister, 
tyranni, a Tyrant. 

counter contra 
circum inter. 

astro anti biblio 
chrono cosmo chiro 
eu geo hydro homo 
il litho ortho philo 
pyro theo zoo. 

dia para. 

bi centi chrono 
semi un 

dia geo hydro 
hyper helio hexa 
ortho pyro peri panto 

poly stereo sym tri. 

Homi,cide, Homicidinm. A man- 
slayer, the killing of one man 
by another. Caedo, caesum, 
to slay or kill. Homo, Ho- 
minis, a man, (so of all the 
others,) the slaying of, or 

Im,mure. To enclose with walls, to 
shut up or imprison, im, for in, 
within, and murus, a wall. 

Logic, gr. The art of reasoning 
justly. The Greek word 
logos, means a word, speech, 
or discourse. 

Analysis, gr. The separating of a 
compound into its constituent 
parts. Gr. Lusis, a dissolving. 

Meter, ) sax. Measure, verse, ar- 
Metre, S rangement of poetical 
feet of long and short sylla- 
bles in verse. Metrum, a 

a mono poly bi. 

sub octora bin* 
mon mult. 

dis ex sub semi. 

Miso,gamist, gr. A hater of marriage. 

Gr. Misos or miseo, to hate, ga- 

mos ( marriage. 
Ocular, Ocularius. Depending on the 

eye, received by actual sight 

Oculus, the eye. 
Orb, Orbis. A spherical or round 

body, a circle or period, the eye. 

n Euphonic. 



dis extra sub. 

penta poly tetra tri 
mono octa di bi a. 
a anti cata dys eu 
homo poly sym. 

centu circum com 
muld sup tri 
con re sub un 


du im 

dis non un. 

extra multi nocti. 

dis mono multi 
octo poly tetra. 

a anti eu mono un. 

con fore in pre. 

inter sub subier. 

dia homo in mono 

semi tri. 

anti hypo para 


a mono pan poly 


con ec (for ex) helio 

geo para self sub. 

Order, Ordo. Regular disposition, pro- 
per state, to direct or command. 
Petal, gr. (in botany), a flower-leaf. 

Phonics, gr. The science of sound, 
the art of combining musical 
Bounds. Gr. Phone, a sound or 

Plicate, Plicatus, Folded like a fan, 
• plaited, knit or entwined toge- 
ther. Plico, to be knit together. 

Regard, f. To look towards, to ob- 
serve, to attend to, to respect. 

Soli,vagant, Soliv&gus. Wandering 
alone. Vagus, wandering, solus, 

Syllable, gr. A letter or combination 
of letters uttered at a single im- 
pulse of the voice. Gr. Sun and 
i Lambano, taken together. 

Sym,pathy, gr. Fellow feeling, the 
quality of being affected by the 
suffering of others. Gr. Pathos, 
suffering or feeling, sun, with. 

Signify, Significo, significatio. To 
express meaning, to make known. 
Signum, a sign, facio, to make. 

Stratum, Stratum. A bed or layer of 
earth, coal, stone, &c. 

Tone, gr. Tonus. A sound or modi- 
fication of sound, accent. 

Thesis, gr. A position or proposition 
which a person advances and 
offers to maintain by argument. 

Theist, gr. One who believes in the ex- 
istence of a God. Gr. Theos, God. 

Center, gr. and Centrum. The middle 
of any thing. 



A few words analyzed more particularly, which may 
excite the scholar to a further examination into the structure 
of words in general. 

Anniversary, is from annus, a year, and versus, a turning or 
returning. Hence the import, returning with the year, 
or a yearly celebration. 

Animadvert, is from vcrtus, turning, animus, the mind, ad to 
Whence comes the meaning to consider, &c. 

Apostate, gr., is Apo, from or off, and stas, standing. Hence 
one who has departed from. 

Atmosphere, gr. Atmos, vapor, and sphaira, round or sphere. 

Alphabet. The first two Greek letters, alpha beta. 

Agriculture. Ager agri, a field, and cnltura, tillage. 

Apode, gr. A, privative, meaning without, and pous, a foot. 
Whence apode is without feet, like a fish. PoZypode, 

Apology, gr. Apo, from or off, and logos, a word. Hence 

Blaspheme, gr. Blax, nefarious or impious, and phemi, to 

Conjugal. Con, with or together, and jugum, a yoke, mean- 
ing yoked together, or married. 

Constant, distant, circumstance. Con, means together or 
with, di, separated or apart, and circum, around. Stans, 
is standing ; whence constant, is standing together, or 
fixed, firm, steady, &c. Distant, standing apart ; 
whence it implies remote, reserved, &c. So good cir- 
cumstances is being surrounded by every thing needftd. 

Consequences, subsequent. Con, with, sub, under or after. 
Sequens, following. Then consequences are what fol- 
low in connection with, but subsequent is what follows 

Cataract, gr. Kata, against, and rasso, to dash. 

Confident, diffident, infidel, and perfidy, all from fides or 
fidens, meaning faith, trust, &c, modified by the pre- 
fixes, con, dif, in, and per. 

Concomitant, is from comes, a companion, and comes is 
from con and eo, to go with, con, repeated, implies a 


repetition of meaning, as going and coming together, 
or a continued union. 

Disease. From dis and ease, a deprivation of ease. 

Dismal. Malus, evil, dies, day, hence dire, horrid, gloomy. 

Despise. Specio, to look, de, down, as with contempt. 

Decapolis. Deca, ten, polis, a city. 

Desultory, insult, exult, result. De, down or from, in, in or 
on, ex, out, re, again or back, and salio, to leap. Then 
desultory, is leaping or passing abruptly from one sub- 
ject to another, ircsult, leaping on, or gross abuse. 
Exult, leaping out, or excessive joy ; and result, leap- 
ing back, or a consequence following. 

Devious, previous, pervious. De, from, via, the way; whence, 
out of the way, wandering. So pre, before, and per, by 
or through, give the different imports. 

Divide. From the obsolete word viduo, to separate, di, apart. 
Then individual, is one undivided person or thing. 

Disaster. Dis, separation, astron, from his star. The an- 
cients supposed the star under which a person was born 
governed his destiny ; hence, disaster comes to mean 
ill-luck, misfortune. 

Democrat, gr. Demos, the people, and Kratos, power ; 
whence a popular government. 

Discrepency. Crepo, to crackle or jingle, dis, asunder; hence 
the import, disagreement of parts, like jingling asunder. 

Expedite. Ex, and pes pedis, a foot. To facilitate, &c. 

Epilepsy, gr. Epi, upon, and lambano, to leap, as a fit. 

Equivocate. Equus, alike or equal, and vocatus, called ; 
whence the meaning becomes doubtful, uncertain. 

Evidence. Video, to see or discover, e, out, or elucidate. 

Epidemic, gr. Epi, upon, Demos, the people. 

Fluent, affluent, superfluous, and influence, are all from 
fluo, to flow, modified by their prefixes. 

Geography, gr. Ge, the earth, and grapho to write. 

Geometry, gr. Ge and metreo, to measure. 

Infant. For, to speak, makes fans, speaking; in means not, 
then an infant, is one not able to speak or use language. 

Metropolis, gr. Meter, a mother, and polis, a city. 

Monotony, gr. Monos, one or alone, and tonos, a tone or 

Manage. Manus, the hand, and age, from ago, to do. 


Monopolize, gr. Monos, alone, and poleo, to buy. 

Monarch, gr. Monos, and archos, a chief. 

Mancipate, to enslave. Manus, the hand, and capio, to take. 

Orb, from orbis, a spherical body; orbit, the curve line in 
which it moves. Then exorbitant, is departing from 
the usual track or course. 

Order, from ordo, makes extraordinary. 

Prophet, gr. Pro, before, and phemi, to speak. 

Period, gr. Peri, around, and odos, a way or road. Then 
a periodical, is what goes the rounds at stated times. 

Providence. Pro and videns, seeing before. 

Peregrinate. Ager, agri, a field, and hence peregrinate, to 
travel through the country. 

Pennsylvania. Penn, the name of the founder, and sylva, a 

Pedagogue, gr. Pais, a child, and agogos, a leader. 

Preposterous, Posterus, from post, after, and pre, before ; 
hence, it means putting that first which should be last, 
or absurd. 

Repugnant, Pugnans, fighting, re, back ; or opposite, con- 

Roborant, strengthening, from robur, oak of the hardest 
kind, and cor for con, makes corroborate, to confirm. 

Sympathy, gr. Syn for sun, means with, and pathos, suffer- 
ing, then it means suffering with, or fellow feeling. 
Apathy, without feeling. Antipa,\hy, opposition of 

Synod, gr. Syn for sun, and odos, a way or road. 

Synopsis, gr. Syn and opsis, the sight ; whence one view. 

Supercilious. Super, above, ciliurn, the eye-brow, or 

Sincere. Sine, without, cera wax ; whence, unmixed, pure. 

Universe. Versus, a turning, unus, into one ; a collective 

Vague. Vagus, wandering, extra, beyond, making extra- 


Importance of knowing Latin words, or of understand 
ing that language. 


From the vast number of Latin words which have either 
in whole or in parts become incorporated with the English 
language, much benefit is derived from a knowledge of their 
primitive import. In most cases they give that turn to the 
English signification, which accords with their original 
meaning. Hence the primary signification of such Latin 
roots as are extensively involved in the composition of our 
language, must necessarily furnish an important auxiliary 
in determining the true import of all such English words. 

For instance, the verb facto, with its supine factum, 
whose simple primitive meaning is to do, to make, or to 
cause, enters in some form into the composition of more 
than 500 of our English words ; and in every case imparts 
more or less of its original signification. A knowledge, 
therefore, of the meaning of that verb and its supine, with 
the ability to distinguish its combination in any word, must 
of necessity aid the scholar in a more perfect compre- 
hension of the true import of all English words, of which 
this is a component part. 

This is a consideration fully equivalent for learning the. 
primitive meaning of facio, factum. The same is true to a 
very great extent in avast multitude of Latin primitives. 
Much would be gained by committing Latin primitives as 
they occur. 

Words of Greek origin, while they furnish a fruitful 
source of derivation, are by no means as numerous or im- 
portant as those of Latin. 

We will subjoin a few of the most prominent words in 
Greek and Latin, with something near the number of their 
several combinations in the formation of English words, viz. 

Facio, Factum, 500 ; Pono, Positum, 250 ; Plico, 200 ; 
Fero, Latum, 198; Specio, 177; Mitto, Missum, 174; 
Teneo, Tentum, 168 ; Capio, Captum, 197 ; Tendo, Ten- 
sum, Tentum, 162 ; Duco, Ductum, 156 ; Logos, gr. 156 ; 
Grapho, gr. 152. These twelve words enter in some 
shape into the composition of nearly 2500 English words. 

From 154 Greek and Latin primitives which have been 
examined, in reference to this point, it is found that not far 
from 13,000 English words receive more or less of their 
component parts, characterizing the English signification 
to a greater or less extent. 




Santa Barbara 


DUE AUG 2 7 2002 

Scries 9482 

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